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How to Identify Your Stamps

The chief reward from collecting stamps should be enjoyment!  However, at some point you may want to learn the basics of identification and condition of your stamps.  As we mentioned earlier, two stamps can look exactly the same, and yet they are different issues with different Scott Numbers and values.  Also, you know the difference between used and unused, but do you know how unused and mint stamps differ?  Let’s have a short course in philately!

Used, Unused, and Mint Stamps

First of all – a used stamp has actually been used for postage.  It has a cancellation on it, and usually the gum is missing.  An unused stamp has never been used postally, but it may be missing its gum or may have hinge marks on its back.  A mint stamp is in the perfect condition it was in when it came off the printing press – no sign of gum disturbance or a hinge mark.
 
Determining Basic Information

Scott #333

Scott #426

Now, getting back to those stamps which look alike... you need to determine some basic information.  To do this, you must have access to a Mystic Catalog or some other publication which describes the various issues of stamps.  As an example, we’ll use U.S. #333 and #426.  Both are 3¢ violet stamps with the same design of George Washington.  If you look at the beginning of their listing, you’ll note the #333 is a perf. 12, with a Double Line Watermark, while the #426 is a perf. 10, with a Single Line Watermark.  The only way to tell these two stamps apart is to measure their perforations and watermark them.
 
 
Sheets, Coils, Booklet, and Self-Adhesive Stamps

Some stamp designs look the same, but have been issued for different purposes.  The only difference when you look at them may be the number of sides with perforations.  A sheet stamp has perforations on all four sides.  Coil stamps are issued in long strips for use in vending machines.  They have straight edges on opposite sides and perforations on the other two sides.  Booklet stamps come from a small pane or block of stamps which is part of a booklet sold at post offices or in vending machines.  These stamps can have straight edges on one, two, or three sides.  Self-adhesive stamps are issued on a special backing paper.  Once peeled off the backing, a pre-applied adhesive allows the stamps to be affixed without being moistened.  They may have wavy, "serpentine perforations" or be imperforate.  For more information on modern stamp identification, click here.

2881 - sheet

2889 - coil

2883 - booklet

2886 - self-adhesive


 
 
Gauging Perforations

Always take the horizontal perforation measurement first, then the vertical.  Make sure the circles on your perforation gauge fit perfectly between the stamp perforations.  After you have determined the perforations, it’s time to watermark.

 

Watermarks


Sometimes the only difference between stamps that look alike is their watermark.  Watermarks are letters or patterns impressed into the paper used to produce certain stamps.  Modern U.S. stamps don’t have watermarks, but many older ones do, in the shape of a single line or double line U, S, or P.  See illustrations below.

To see if your stamp has a watermark, place it face down in a watermark tray, and pour enough watermark fluid over it to cover completely.  (Never use water.)  The watermark should be visible; how well it shows varies with the stamp.  You may not see a whole letter or design, but only part of one.  Let your stamp dry completely before removing it from the tray.  U.S. watermarks are always letters like those shown.  (Many foreign stamps have watermarks in the shape of a crown or other symbol alone or in addition to letters.)