4¢ Mexican Independence
Issue Date: September 16, 1960
City: Los Angeles, CA
Printed by: Bureau of Engraving and Printing
Printing Method: Giori Press
Color: Green and rose red
U.S. #1157, a joint issue with Mexico, commemorates the 150th anniversary of Mexican Independence. The stamp pictures the historic bell Miguel Hidalgo brought to Mexico City from Dolores, Mexico, and rang his call for independence.
Mexico’s War for Independence
On the night of September 15, 1810, Mexican priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla declared war on the colonial government in what has been named the Grito de Dolores, or Cry of Dolores. By morning, the revolutionary army sought independence and marched to Guanajuato, an important mining center controlled by the Spaniards and criollos (people of pure or mostly Spanish ancestry). The Spaniards and criollos locked themselves in the granary, but were captured on September 28. Most were killed or exiled.
A month later, on October 30, Hidalgo and his men were met by a Spanish resistance at the Battle of Monte de las Cruces and defeated them. However, the rebel army couldn’t beat a heavily armed Spanish army in Mexico City that sent many rebel survivors into hiding while they made a new plan.
In January the following year, the Spanish army at the Battle of the Bridge of Calderón again defeated the rebels. The rebels fled to the U.S.-Mexico border but were captured there by the Spanish army. After his capture, father Hidalgo was put on trial and then killed.
With their leader gone, the rebels needed a new leader, and that was José María Morelos. Morelos led the successful campaigns that took the cities of Oaxaca and Acapulco. In November 1813, Congress signed the first official document of independence. Two years later Spanish authorities captured, tried, and executed Morelos. Fighting continued from 1815 to 1821, when Spanish representatives signed the Treaty of Córdoba, officially recognizing Mexico’s independence.