#2172 – 1986 5c Great Americans: Hugo L. Black

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U.S. #2172
5¢ Hugo Black
Great Americans Series

Issue Date: February 27, 1986
City: Washington, DC
Quantity: 57,210,000
Printed By: Bureau of Engraving and Printing
Printing Method:
Engraved
Perforations:
11
Color: Dark olive green
 
Appointed in 1937 as an associate justice, Hugo L. Black served on the U.S. Supreme Court for 30 years. An eloquent speaker, he strongly supported government protection of civil rights. Experts state he was second only to John Marshall in his impact on the Constitution. Black is pictured on the 5¢ Great Americans stamp.
 
Issued between 1980 and 1999, the Great Americans definitive series features 63 designs, making it the largest set of face different Regular Issue stamps issued in the 20th century. One stamp honors a couple (Lila and Dewitt Wallace) while the remaining 62 commemorate individuals.
 
The series is characterized by a standard definitive size, simple design and monochromatic colors. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing produced most of the stamps, but some were printed by private firms. Several stamps saw multiple printings. The result is many different varieties, with tagging being the key to understanding them.
 

The Air Mail Scandal of the 1930s

1930 5¢ Winged Globe Flat Plate Perf 11
US #C12 – Airmail stamp in use at the time the Air Mail Act of 1930 was passed.

On September 28, 1933, an investigation was launched into the awarding of contracts for airmail flights.  The Airmail Fiasco, as it was also known, eventually led to wide-scale improvements to the airline industry and modernization of the Army Air Corps.

The scandal had stemmed from the passage of the Air Mail Act of 1930 on April 29, also known as the McNary-Watres Act (after its sponsors, Charles L. McNary and Laurence H. Watres).  The act gave the postmaster general the authority to grant long-term airmail contracts with rates based on space or volume, instead of weight.

One of the major changes this act brought about was that it changed how payments to airmail carriers were calculated.  These carriers received set fees for the size of their planes, whether or not they carried mail.  The goal of this provision was to discourage the carriers from bringing aboard junk mail to increase their profits.  They also hoped this would help to encourage the airlines to carry more passengers.

1931 5¢ Rotary Pf 10-1/2x11
US #C16 – Issued in 1931

Another provision in the act permitted any airmail carriers that had a contract of two years or more to turn in their contracts for route certificates, which would allow them to carry the mail for another 10 years.  The most controversial provision of the act gave the postmaster general the authority to “extend or consolidate” routes based solely on his own judgment.

In May 1930, Postmaster General Walter Folger Brown held his first “Spoils Conference.”  At this conference, he called on his authority under the Air Mail Act to consolidate the air mail routes to just three major companies (that eventually became United, Trans World, and American Airlines), which were all competing.  The goal of this was to force the smaller carriers to merger with the larger ones.  Within two years, the airline industry was one of the only fields enjoying consistent growth and profitability, described by one historian as “Depression-proof.”  The number of passengers, the distance they flew and new airline employees all tripled and airmail deliveries doubled.

1934 6¢ Rotary Perf 10-1/2 x 11
US #C19 was issued in 1934 for a new airmail rate.

Investigation into the scandal was initially launched by journalist Fulton Lewis Jr.  Lewis had spoken with an officer from the Ludington Airline.  While they were the first US airline to make a profit carrying only passengers, the novelty of flying wore off during the Depression and the business suffered greatly.  In 1931, they submitted a low bid of 25¢ per mile to show their commitment to extending the route “at or below cost.”  Lewis later found out that not only had Ludington not received the contract, but it had gone to their rival, Contract Air Mail, at a rate of 89¢ per mile.  Ludington ended up merging with another company and Lewis believed there was a scandal going on.

1976 13¢ Commercial Aviation
US #1684 was issued for the 50th anniversary of the contract airmail flights in 1926.

Lewis investigated the scandal and brought his concerns to the government.  His concerns went largely ignored until he approached Senator Hugo Black.  Black agreed something was off and launched an investigation, dubbed the Black Committee, on September 28, 1933.  The Interstate Commerce Commission seized the records of all US mail carriers that day.  The committee investigated a variety of concerns that airlines were scamming the system, including the padlocking of letters to make them heavier.

1986 5¢ Great Americans: Hugo L. Black
US #2172 – Black led the committee that investigated the scandal.

Black claimed he had found fraud and collusion between the Hoover administration and the airlines and staged public hearings in January 1934.  Many of the allegations were later found to be without merit.  All but two contracts had been awarded to the lowest bidder.  Franklin Roosevelt’s administration sought to prevent another scandal and tasked the Army Air Corps with taking over air mail delivery.  They carried the mail between February and May 1934, but suffered 66 major accidents and 13 deaths.  This drew public concern leading the Air Mail Act of June 12, 1934, which reinstated competitive bidding, instituted regulations of airmail labor, shut down joint airline and aircraft manufacturing holding companies, and disallowed companies that held previous contacts from getting new ones.  Though most companies simply changed names to get around this.

With airmail revenues decreasing, the airlines focused more on passenger transportation and developed new, modern planes.  The Federal Aviation Commission was formed because of the act and the 1938 Civil Aeronautics Act restricted the airline industry.  The Air Corps also benefited from the fallout – improving training and radio communications, flight simulators, and overall modernization, just in time for World War II.

 
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U.S. #2172
5¢ Hugo Black
Great Americans Series

Issue Date: February 27, 1986
City: Washington, DC
Quantity: 57,210,000
Printed By: Bureau of Engraving and Printing
Printing Method:
Engraved
Perforations:
11
Color: Dark olive green
 
Appointed in 1937 as an associate justice, Hugo L. Black served on the U.S. Supreme Court for 30 years. An eloquent speaker, he strongly supported government protection of civil rights. Experts state he was second only to John Marshall in his impact on the Constitution. Black is pictured on the 5¢ Great Americans stamp.
 
Issued between 1980 and 1999, the Great Americans definitive series features 63 designs, making it the largest set of face different Regular Issue stamps issued in the 20th century. One stamp honors a couple (Lila and Dewitt Wallace) while the remaining 62 commemorate individuals.
 
The series is characterized by a standard definitive size, simple design and monochromatic colors. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing produced most of the stamps, but some were printed by private firms. Several stamps saw multiple printings. The result is many different varieties, with tagging being the key to understanding them.
 

The Air Mail Scandal of the 1930s

1930 5¢ Winged Globe Flat Plate Perf 11
US #C12 – Airmail stamp in use at the time the Air Mail Act of 1930 was passed.

On September 28, 1933, an investigation was launched into the awarding of contracts for airmail flights.  The Airmail Fiasco, as it was also known, eventually led to wide-scale improvements to the airline industry and modernization of the Army Air Corps.

The scandal had stemmed from the passage of the Air Mail Act of 1930 on April 29, also known as the McNary-Watres Act (after its sponsors, Charles L. McNary and Laurence H. Watres).  The act gave the postmaster general the authority to grant long-term airmail contracts with rates based on space or volume, instead of weight.

One of the major changes this act brought about was that it changed how payments to airmail carriers were calculated.  These carriers received set fees for the size of their planes, whether or not they carried mail.  The goal of this provision was to discourage the carriers from bringing aboard junk mail to increase their profits.  They also hoped this would help to encourage the airlines to carry more passengers.

1931 5¢ Rotary Pf 10-1/2x11
US #C16 – Issued in 1931

Another provision in the act permitted any airmail carriers that had a contract of two years or more to turn in their contracts for route certificates, which would allow them to carry the mail for another 10 years.  The most controversial provision of the act gave the postmaster general the authority to “extend or consolidate” routes based solely on his own judgment.

In May 1930, Postmaster General Walter Folger Brown held his first “Spoils Conference.”  At this conference, he called on his authority under the Air Mail Act to consolidate the air mail routes to just three major companies (that eventually became United, Trans World, and American Airlines), which were all competing.  The goal of this was to force the smaller carriers to merger with the larger ones.  Within two years, the airline industry was one of the only fields enjoying consistent growth and profitability, described by one historian as “Depression-proof.”  The number of passengers, the distance they flew and new airline employees all tripled and airmail deliveries doubled.

1934 6¢ Rotary Perf 10-1/2 x 11
US #C19 was issued in 1934 for a new airmail rate.

Investigation into the scandal was initially launched by journalist Fulton Lewis Jr.  Lewis had spoken with an officer from the Ludington Airline.  While they were the first US airline to make a profit carrying only passengers, the novelty of flying wore off during the Depression and the business suffered greatly.  In 1931, they submitted a low bid of 25¢ per mile to show their commitment to extending the route “at or below cost.”  Lewis later found out that not only had Ludington not received the contract, but it had gone to their rival, Contract Air Mail, at a rate of 89¢ per mile.  Ludington ended up merging with another company and Lewis believed there was a scandal going on.

1976 13¢ Commercial Aviation
US #1684 was issued for the 50th anniversary of the contract airmail flights in 1926.

Lewis investigated the scandal and brought his concerns to the government.  His concerns went largely ignored until he approached Senator Hugo Black.  Black agreed something was off and launched an investigation, dubbed the Black Committee, on September 28, 1933.  The Interstate Commerce Commission seized the records of all US mail carriers that day.  The committee investigated a variety of concerns that airlines were scamming the system, including the padlocking of letters to make them heavier.

1986 5¢ Great Americans: Hugo L. Black
US #2172 – Black led the committee that investigated the scandal.

Black claimed he had found fraud and collusion between the Hoover administration and the airlines and staged public hearings in January 1934.  Many of the allegations were later found to be without merit.  All but two contracts had been awarded to the lowest bidder.  Franklin Roosevelt’s administration sought to prevent another scandal and tasked the Army Air Corps with taking over air mail delivery.  They carried the mail between February and May 1934, but suffered 66 major accidents and 13 deaths.  This drew public concern leading the Air Mail Act of June 12, 1934, which reinstated competitive bidding, instituted regulations of airmail labor, shut down joint airline and aircraft manufacturing holding companies, and disallowed companies that held previous contacts from getting new ones.  Though most companies simply changed names to get around this.

With airmail revenues decreasing, the airlines focused more on passenger transportation and developed new, modern planes.  The Federal Aviation Commission was formed because of the act and the 1938 Civil Aeronautics Act restricted the airline industry.  The Air Corps also benefited from the fallout – improving training and radio communications, flight simulators, and overall modernization, just in time for World War II.