#4541 – 2011 First-Class Forever Stamp - American Scientists: Melvin Calv

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- MM21645 Vertical Mounts, Black, Split-back, Pre-cut, 30 x 37 millimeters (1-3/16 x 1-7/16 inches)
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U.S. #4541
2011 44¢ Melvin Calvin
American Scientists
 
Issue Date: June 16, 2011
City: St. Paul, MN
Quantity: 30,000,000
Printed By:  Banknote Corporation of America, Sennett Security Products
Printing Method: Offset
Color: multicolored
 
A high school teacher criticized student Melvin Calvin (1911-1997) for not gathering all the data before arriving at his answers, and said he’d never make a scientist. The teacher was proven wrong when Calvin built an internationally renowned career that included a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1961. 
 
Years later, Calvin addressed the comments in his 1992 autobiography. He wrote, “It’s no trick to get the right answer when you have all the data. The real creative trick is to get the right answer when you have only half of the data in hand and half of it is wrong and you don’t know which half is wrong.”
 
Calvin’s creativity led to breakthrough research regarding photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert sunlight into energy. The conversion of carbon dioxide into organic molecules is called the “Calvin Cycle,” because of his work. His Nobel presenter credited Calvin with “the complete clarification of an extremely intricate problem.” 
 
Calvin worked at Berkeley from 1937 to 1980, where he strongly encouraged cooperation among different scientific disciplines. The Berkeley bioscience lab, nicknamed the “Calvin Carousel,” was officially named the Melvin Calvin Laboratory after he retired. Time magazine gave Calvin a different nickname – “Mr. Photosynthesis.”
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U.S. #4541
2011 44¢ Melvin Calvin
American Scientists
 

Issue Date: June 16, 2011
City: St. Paul, MN
Quantity: 30,000,000
Printed By:  Banknote Corporation of America, Sennett Security Products
Printing Method: Offset
Color: multicolored
 

A high school teacher criticized student Melvin Calvin (1911-1997) for not gathering all the data before arriving at his answers, and said he’d never make a scientist. The teacher was proven wrong when Calvin built an internationally renowned career that included a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1961. 
 
Years later, Calvin addressed the comments in his 1992 autobiography. He wrote, “It’s no trick to get the right answer when you have all the data. The real creative trick is to get the right answer when you have only half of the data in hand and half of it is wrong and you don’t know which half is wrong.”
 
Calvin’s creativity led to breakthrough research regarding photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert sunlight into energy. The conversion of carbon dioxide into organic molecules is called the “Calvin Cycle,” because of his work. His Nobel presenter credited Calvin with “the complete clarification of an extremely intricate problem.” 
 
Calvin worked at Berkeley from 1937 to 1980, where he strongly encouraged cooperation among different scientific disciplines. The Berkeley bioscience lab, nicknamed the “Calvin Carousel,” was officially named the Melvin Calvin Laboratory after he retired. Time magazine gave Calvin a different nickname – “Mr. Photosynthesis.”