1927 2¢ Burgoyne Campaign
First Day of Issue: August 3, 1927
First City: Syracuse, NY; Utica, NY; Albany, NY; Rome, NY; Washington, D.C.
Quantity Issued: 25,628,450
Printing Method: Rotary Press
Color: Carmine rose
Although U.S. #644 is called the “Burgoyne Campaign,” it commemorates several different events. In fact, General John Burgoyne isn’t the central character in the stamp and it wasn’t originally intended to honor him, as he was a British general fighting against America. The stamp pictures Burgoyne (left of center) handing his sword to General Horatio Gates of the Continental Army. The stamp image is based on John Trumbull’s 1821 painting “Surrender of General Burgoyne.”
Events Leading to the Surrender of Burgoyne
Known as Gentleman Johnny, General Burgoyne first arrived in Quebec in May 1777, planning to take control of New York’s Hudson River and Mohawk Valley. Commanding about 7,700 British troops, Indians, Germans, and American loyalists to Britain, Burgoyne captured Fort Ticonderoga. But he was slowed to only one mile a day by his excessive baggage train and the American forces who had cut down trees to slow his progress.
On August 3, British lieutenant colonel Barry St. Leger began an attack on Fort Stanwix, located in present-day Rome, New York. As the fort’s 750 men defended themselves, a group of 800 soldiers from Fort Dayton began a 30-mile trek to provide support. However, St. Ledger knew they were coming and planned an ambush on them six miles from Fort Stanwix. Although St. Ledger’s Indian forces eventually retreated, about 200 Colonists were killed, 50 wounded, and their leader, General Nicholas Herkimer, was mortally wounded. With Herkimer’s men in no shape to relieve Fort Stanwix, Benedict Arnold put together a force of 1,000 men to come to their aid. In the meantime, the Indians rioted against the British, forcing St. Ledger to retreat to Oswego, leaving no one to meet Burgoyne at Albany.
In the meantime, Burgoyne and his men were critically low on supplies. Knowing the Continental Army stored weapons and supplies at Bennington, New York, (present-day Walloomsac) Burgoyne sent a raid. They were surprised to find more than 1,600 soldiers from New Hampshire and Vermont protecting the supplies. More than 200 British soldiers were killed with another 700 taken prisoner.
Burgoyne continued to move toward Albany, losing another 600 men at Freeman’s Farm on September 19, 1777. Less than a month later, Benedict Arnold led another successful campaign against Burgoyne at Bemis Heights, taking the lives of 600 more British soldiers.
As his forces grew smaller and weaker, Burgoyne finally retreated north to Saratoga, but was surrounded by American forces outnumbering him three to one. By October 17, he surrendered.
The victories at these New York locations not only kept the British from taking control of New York, but they showed the doubtful French that the Colonists were capable of winning the war for their freedom. Shortly after Burgoyne’s surrender, the French joined the American cause and helped win the war.