3¢ View of Corregidor, Manila Bay
Issue Date: September 27, 1944
City: Washington, D.C.
Printed by: Bureau of Engraving and Printing
Printing Method: Rotary Press
Perforations: 11 x 10.5
Color: Deep violet
Called the “Gibraltar of the Pacific,” Corregidor, honored on U.S. #925, was the site of a World War II standoff between U.S. and Philippine troops and Japanese forces. Today, the entire island is a national shrine to the soldiers who died in its defense.
Manila was founded in 1571, and most of the islands came under Spanish control, except for the Muslim-dominated southern islands. Beginning in the 1880s, young Filipinos educated abroad started numerous – yet unsuccessful – independence movements. During the Spanish-American War, Filipino troops played an important role in the U.S. land forces’ victory on the islands. The U.S. controlled the Philippines until 1935, when it was established as an independent commonwealth. America was still responsible for foreign policy matters.
World War II brought Japanese control, after considerable bloody fighting against the forces commanded by U.S. General Douglas MacArthur. In October of 1944 MacArthur returned, and within months defeated the Japanese. Philippine independence was announced July 4, 1946.
Despite struggles with Communist rebels, the Filipinos rebuilt their war-ravaged island. Economic aid from the U.S. and the addition of naval and air force bases hastened this recovery. In 1965, Ferdinand Marcos was elected president. Marcos successfully strengthened the economy, but Communist and Muslim uprisings threatened the stability of the islands. Martial law was declared in 1972, and though it ended in 1981, Marcos maintained a firm hold on the government.
Political unrest stirred, due to accusations of corruption against Marcos and his administration. The trouble climaxed in 1983, when Benigno S. Aquino Jr., Marco’s biggest rival, was assassinated. In 1986, elections were held with Aquino’s widow, Corazon Aquino, running in her husband’s place. When Marcos won the election through fraudulent means, the country erupted and Marcos fled the country. Promising democratic reforms, Corazon Aquino became the new president, adopted a new constitution with a new legislative body, and worked to solve the internal strife in the country peacefully. In May 1992, Fidel Ramos became president and the U.S. pulled out of Subic Bay, ending our military presence in the country.
FDR – The Stamp-Collecting President
President Franklin Roosevelt was instrumental in the design and issuance of U.S. #925. Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s mother introduced the future President to stamp collecting at a young age. Throughout his life, he turned to his collection to relax and unwind.
Roosevelt was elected President four times, serving in the nation’s highest office longer than any other chief executive – 12 years. During those 12 years, Roosevelt promoted the importance of stamps by personally approving each of more than 200 stamp designs. This included suggesting topics, rejecting others, and even designing some of the stamps himself. He used U.S. postage stamps to educate Americans about their heritage, to buoy war-weary spirits during World War II, and to send a message of peace and hope as Europe faced the overwhelming task of rebuilding.