What are Farley’s Follies?

754 mint center line block copy

U.S. #754 Imperforate and without gum as issued

Farley’s Follies is one of stamp collecting’s most interesting stories.  And since most of the stamps are readily available and inexpensive, it’s easy enough to put a specialized collection together.  Let’s step back in time and discover one of the Postal Service’s biggest scandals…

James A. Farley (1888-1976) got his start in politics in 1911 as town clerk of Grassy Point, New York. He moved his way through the political system, forming the Upstate New York Democratic Organization and bringing many upstate voters to the Democratic party. In 1924, he met young Franklin Roosevelt at the Democratic National Convention. Four years later, FDR asked Farley to run his campaign for New York governor. Farley helped FDR win the elections for governor in 1928 and 1930. A driving force in the U.S. political system, Farley helped FDR win the 1932 and 1936 presidential elections. Roosevelt made Farley his Postmaster General. Farley was pivotal in turning around the U.S. Post Office Department. He helped the department finally turn a profit and revolutionized airmail service.

753 mint center line block

U.S. #753, the Byrd Expedition World Map Special Printing

The infamous “Farley’s Follies” controversy began in 1933 when Farley removed several stamp sheets from the printing presses before they were gummed or perforated. He autographed these sheets (which were not available to the public) and gave them to colleagues and family, creating precious philatelic rarities. Stamp collectors were outraged when they discovered what had happened. Finally, the Post Office came up with a solution – the reissue in sheet form of all the stamps issued since March 4, 1933, in ungummed condition, all but the first two imperforate and in sufficient numbers to satisfy public demand. Although Farley and FDR had a falling out over Roosevelt’s plan to run for a third term, Farley remained a strong force in the political and business worlds. He went on to serve as Chairman of the Board of the Coca-Cola Export Corporation and served as a trusted advisor to several Popes, dignitaries, and Presidents until his death in 1976.

Farley’s Follies are Scarce and Valuable Collectibles

The British stamp firm Gibbons reportedly declared the reprint was “nauseous prostitution,” and at first refused to list the issues in their famous stamp catalog! But even today, over 80 years after they were issued, collectors still love Farley’s Follies.

“Farley’s Follies” were issued in large sheets that are way too big to fit in stamp albums. So smart collectors snapped up blocks and pairs in a variety of formats instead. They not only fit, but these key formats are an easy way to understand the stamp printing process.

Mystic purchased full sheets of these mint stamps and made them available in scarce formats like vertical, horizontal and gutter pairs plus arrow blocks, line pairs and cross gutter blocks. All are hard to find – some occur only once in every stamp sheet. It’s a neat way to own a scandalous slice of U.S. postal history. Our experts even designed custom album pages to display them on. Learn more here.

Posted in Neat Stamp Stories | 5 Comments

Grilled Issues of the United States

pg17-grillsIn the late 1800s, officials were worried that people were “recycling” stamps by washing the cancels away and using them again. So they gambled on an experiment – a grilling machine invented by Charles F. Steel. From 1867-75, Steel’s machine used a roller pitted with either small depressions or small raised pyramids to break fibers in stamp paper. The rollers with depressions created a “points up” pattern while those with raised pyramids made a “points down” pattern.

These broken fibers allowed cancellation ink to thoroughly penetrate the paper. This meant even regular pen ink, which was used to cancel stamps at smaller post offices, would be impossible to remove completely. The experiment was short-lived, ending in 1875.

Early in the 20th century, William Stevenson categorized grills by size and shape, and sorted the stamps by “grill family.” Identifying grills is fun and easy using the pictures and chart below.

A” Grill – covers the entire stamp; points up/vertical ridges – U.S. #’s 79-81

“B” Grill – 18 x 15 mm (22 x 18 points); points up/vertical ridges – U.S. # 82

“C” Grill – 13 x 16 mm (16-17 x 18-21 points); points up/vertical ridges – U.S. # 83

“D” Grill – 12 x 14 mm (15 x 17-18 points); points down/vertical ridges – U.S. #’s 84-85

“Z” Grill – 11 x 14 mm (13-14 x 18 points); points down/horizontal ridges – U.S. #’s 85A, 85B, 85C, 85D, 85E, 85F

“E” Grill – 11 x 13 mm (14 x 15-17 points); points down/vertical ridges – U.S. #’s 86-91

“F” Grill – 9 x 13 mm (11-12 x 15-17 points); points down/vertical ridges – U.S. #’s 92-101

“G” Grill – 9.5 x 9 mm (12 x 11-11.5 points); points down/vertical ridges – U.S. #’s 112-122

“H” Grill – 10 x 12 mm (11-13 x 14-16 points); points down/vertical ridges – U.S. #’s 134-144

“I” Grill – 8.5 x 10 mm (10-11 x 10-13 points); points down/vertical ridges – U.S. #’s 134-138

“J” Grill – 7 x 9.5 mm ( 10 x 12 points); points down/vertical ridges – U.S. #’s 156e, 157c, 158e, 159b, 160a, 161c, 162a, 165a, 178c, 179c

 

 

 

 

 

Posted in General Stamp Collecting | 1 Comment

Graf Zeppelins

The Graf Zeppelins (and Why Stamp Collectors Love Them)

C13

1930 65¢ Zeppelin Over Atlantic Ocean

Graf Zeppelins are some of the most sought-after U.S. stamps. These airmail stamps are scarce because of their very small issue quantities and the fact they were on sale for five weeks and two days – and that was over 80 years ago!

The Graf Zeppelin dirigible was named after its designer – Count (“Graf” in German) Ferdinand von Zeppelin. An aluminum-framed, lighter-than-air craft, the Graf made its first dramatic trans-Atlantic voyage in 1928. That voyage saw three crew members dangling from the outside of the massive ship, trying to make crucial repairs during a raging storm in mid-Atlantic! That first trip was riddled with danger, but it ended successfully and those that followed were smoother.

C14

1930 $1.30 Zeppelin Between Continents

On May 18, 1930, the Graf Zeppelin began its first round-trip voyage between Europe and North and South America. The Zeppelin airmail stamps were issued to commemorate the event and frank mail carried on it. Covers carried on that voyage bear the famous “Zeps,” documenting the importance of the giant aircraft in the development of world airmail service. It was only after the crash of the German airship Hindenburg that the Graf Zeppelin was taken out of service. Its history included many records, including the fact the Graf was the only airship to fly around the world.

The stamps and covers which resulted from the many flights of the Graf Zeppelin have fascinated collectors from that time on – and they always will.

C15

1930 $2.60 Zeppelin Passing Globe

The Zeppelin airmail designs picture the dirigible’s long journey over the ocean between Europe and the Americas, showing the giant airship traveling westward from Europe as well as eastward, back to its home port in Friedrichshafen, Germany. The Zeppelins and the mail they carried were an exciting chapter in the saga of airmail service in the early years of this century. Those years were a time of daring and courageous airmail pilots whose exploits were carried out in flimsy, unstable, heavier-than-air planes such as the Curtiss Jenny as well as the unforgettable Zeppelins.

All mankind took a giant leap into the future as these heroes defied gravity and piloted their crafts into the wild blue yonder. The Zeppelin stamps are historic artifacts from that exciting time. Like all postage stamps, they tell us wonderful things about our nation’s past.

The Golden Age of dirigible flight ended with the Hindenburg Disaster.

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How to Identify Your Stamps

How to Identify Your Stamps

The biggest reward from collecting stamps is your enjoyment!  However, at some point you may want to learn the basics of identification and condition of your stamps.  As you may know, two stamps can look exactly the same, and yet they are different issues with different Scott Numbers and values.  Also, you know the difference between used and unused, but do you know how unused and mint stamps differ?  Let me show you some techniques for identifying your stamps! Continue reading

Posted in Beginner's Section, How-To Guides | 7 Comments

Basic Stamp Terms for Beginners

Knowing the meaning of a few stamp collecting terms makes it more fun to collect – and easier to talk to other collectors about the hobby. Here’s a few basic terms to get you started!

Perforation: small rows of holes punched between stamps to make separating them easy

Design: a stamp’s overall appearance

Vignette: central part of the stamp design

Frame: the outer part of a stamp design, which can be as simple as a single line or very ornate

Selvage: attached margin paper that may be plain or highly decorative

Country: tells you which nation issued your stamp

Denomination: what it originally cost to purchase the stamp from the post office

Series and Sets: Many of the stamps in series and sets have common design elements. For example, each stamp in this series features a Looney Tunes character. Notice the style of the letters and numbers also match. (FYI – series are issued over a period of years, while sets are issued on the same date.)

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Foreign Stamp Identifier

Mystic’s Foreign Stamp Identifier is a neat tool to help you determine what country a stamp is from, and how it should be listed in your album. And it’s easy to use. Just pick out a symbol, word or sign on the stamp you want to identify. Find it in the index, and you will see the correct country’s name. If you don’t find the first words you look up, just keep trying different ones until you find an indexing word.

A
Av opo ta: Russia
A. C. C. P.: Azerbaijan
AÇORES: Azores
A. E. F. (overprint): French
Equatorial Africa
A´pta: Epirus
AFGHAN, AFGHANES: Afghanistan
AFRICA CORREIOS: Portuguese Africa
AFRICA OCCIDENTAL ESPANOLA: Spanish West Africa
AFRICA ORIENTALE ITALIANA: Italian East Africa
AFRIQUE EQUATORIALE FRANÇAISE: Middle Congo
AFRIQUE EQUATORIALE FRANÇAISE: (with bars) French Equatorial Africa
AFRIQUE EQUATORIALE GABON: Gabon
AFRIQUE OCCIDENTALE FRANÇAISE: French West Africa
A.M.G.F.T.T. (overprint): Trieste
A.M.G.V.G. (overprint): Italy, Allied occupation of Venezia Giulia
A M POST: Germany, areas under Allied military government
ANTIOQUIA: Colombia – Antioquia
A PAYER TE BETALEN: Belgium
ARCHIPEL DES COMORES: Comoro Islands
A RECEBER: Portugal and
Portuguese Colonies
ARMY OFFICIAL: Great Britain or Sudan
ASSISTENCIA D. L. no. 72
(overprint): Timor
ATT, ATTS: Siam
AUNUS (overprint): Russia, under Finnish occupation
AUR: Iceland
AUSTRALIAN ANTARCTIC
TERRITORY: Australia – Australian Antarctic Territory
AVISPORTO: Denmark

B
B, in an oval (no country name):
Belgium, parcel post stamps
BADEN: Germany
BAGHDAD (overprint): Mesopotamia
BAHAWALPUR: Pakistan – Bahawalpur
BAHT: Siam
BAJAR PORTO: Indonesia
BANI: Romania
BARANYA (overprint): Hungary
BARCELONA: Spain
BARWANI: India – Barwani
BATCMSKAJ POCTA: Batum
BAYERN, BAYR: Bavaria
B.C.O.F.: Japan
B. DPTO ZELAYA: Nicaragua
BELGIAN EAST AFRICA: Ruanda – Urundi
BELGIE: Belgium
BELGIEN (overprint): Belgium
BELGIQUE: Belgium
BELGISCH CONGO: Congo
BELIZE: British Honduras
BENADIR: Somalia
BENIN: Dahomey
BERLIN (overprint): Germany
BEYROUTH (overprint): Russia
BHOPAL: India – Bhopal
BIJAWAR: India – Bijawar
B.I.O.T. (overprint): British Indian Ocean Territory
VOSTCNA KORR´SPONA´NCIJ: Russia
BOFTGEBIET (overprint): Lithuania
BOHMEN UND MAHREN:
Czechoslovakia – Bohemia and Moravia
BOLIVAR: Colombia – Bolivar
BOPHUTHATSWANA: South Africa
BOSNIEN-HERZEGOVINA: Bosnia and Herzegovina
BOYACA: Columbia – Boyaca
BRIEFPOST: Germany
BRITISH NEW GUINEA: Papua and New Guinea
BRITISH OCCUPATION (overprint): Batum
BRITISH SO. AFRICA COMPANY: Rhodesia
BRUXELLES or BRUSSEL:
Belgium
BUITEN BEZIT (overprint): Dutch Indies
BUNDI: India – Bundi
BURKINA FASO: Upper Volta
BURUNDI: Ruanda-Urundi

C
CABO: Nicaragua
CABO JUBI, CABO JUBY: Cape Juby
SANATORNCMw: Bulgaria
CAMBODGE: Cambodia
CAMBODIA: Kampuchea
CAVALLE: France
C C C P: Russia
CECHY A MORAVA: Czechoslovakia – Bohemia and Moravia
CENTENAIRE ALGERIE: France
CENTENAIRE DU GABON: French Equatorial Africa
CESKO-SLOVENSKO:
Czechoslovakia
C F A (overprint): Reunion
C.G.H.S.: Upper Silesia
CH (followed by oriental characters): Korea
CHAMBA: India – Chamba
CHARKHARI: India – Charkhari
CHEMINS DE FER SPOORWEGEN: Belgium
CHIFFRE TAX (no country name) on perforated stamps: France
CHINE: France – Offices in China
CIHS (handstamped): Upper Silesia
CISKEI: South Africa
CN: Korea
COCHIN, COCHIN ANCHAL: India
COLIS POSTAL or POSTAUX (no country name): Belgium
COLONIA ERITREA: Eritrea
COLONIES POSTES: French Colonies
COMITE FRANÇAIS DE LA
LIBERATION NATIONALE: French Colonies, general issue
COMMISSION DE
GOUVERNEMENT HAUTE
SILESIE: Upper Silesia
COMORES: Comoro Islands
COMPANHIA DE MOÇAMBIQUE: Mozambique Company
COMPANHIA DO NYASSA: Nyssa
COMUNICAÇIONES: Spain
CONFEDERATIO HELVETICA: Switzerland
CONGO, with Portuguese
inscriptions: Portuguese Congo; with BELGE: Belgian Congo, now
Congo; with FRANÇAIS: French Congo; with FRANÇAIS GABON: Gabon; with REPUBLIQUE DU: Congo or Middle Congo
COOK ISANDS – NIUE: Niue
COREE, COREAN: Korea
CORREIO: Portugal
CORREO AERO (no country name): Spain
CORREO ESPAÑOL TANGER: Spanish Morocco – Tangier
CORREOS DE COLOMBIA:
Colombia
CORREOS NAÇIONALES: Colombia
CORREOS OAXACA: Mexico – Oaxaca
CORREOS Y TELEGs: Spain
CORREO URBANO DE BOGOTA: Colombia – Bogota
CÔTE DE SOMALIS or CÔTE FRANÇAIS DES SOMALIS: Somali Coast
CÔTE D’IVOIRE: Ivory Coast
SRBSKA: Serbia
SRBEJA: Serbia
CRUZ ROJA HONDURENA:
Honduras
ST, STOT, STOTENKE: Bulgaria
CURAÇAO: Netherlands Antilles
C.X.C.: Jugoslavia

D
d: (pence), / (shilling or £ (pound) preceded by a numeral, on stamp with king or queen’s head but no country name: Great Britain
D: (dinar) on stamp with Arabic
writing: Persia
DDR: German Democratic Republic
DEFICIT: Peru
DELEGACOES: Portugal
DEL GOLFO DE GUINEA: Spanish Guinea
DEUTFCHES REICH: Germany
DEUTFCHOFTERREICH: Austria
DEUTSCHE BUNDESPOST:
Germany
DEUTSCHE DEMOKRATISCHE REPUBLIK: German Demorcratic Republic (East Germany)
DEUTSCHE FELDPOST: Germany
DEUTSCH-NEU-GUINEA: New Britain
DEUTSCHE POFT OR POST:
Germany
DEUTSCHE REICHS-POST:
Germany
DEUTSCHES REICH: Germany
DHAR: India – Dhar
DINAR or DINARS: Persia (Iran)
DINERO: Peru
DIOS, PATRIA, REY: Spain
DJIBOUTI: Afars & Issas
DJ or DJIBOUTI: Somali Coast
DOPLATIT or DOPLATNE (no country name): Czechoslovakia
DRZAVA, DRZAVNA: Jugoslavia
DUITSCH OOST AFRIKA
BELGISCHE BEZETTING:
(overprint): German East Africa
DUTTIA: India – Duttia

E
EA (overprint): Algeria
E. E. F.: Palestine
EESTI: Estonia
EINZUZIEHEN: Danzig
EIRE: Ireland
EJERCITO RENOVADOR: Mexico
EMPIRE FRANC: France
EMPIRE FRANÇ or FRANÇAISE: France or French Colonies
EMP. OTTOMAN: Turkey or Eastern Rumelia
ΕΛΛΑC, ΕΛΛΑΣ: Greece
ΕΛΛΗΝIΚΗ: Greece
EQUATEUR: Ecuador
E.R. (with Queen Elizabeth’s head): Great Britain
ESCUELAS: Venezuela
ESPAÑA, ESPAÑOLA: Spain
ESPAÑA SAHARA: Spanish Sahara
ESTADO DA INDIA: Portuguese India
ESTADO ESPAÑA: Spain
ÉTABLISSEMENTS DANS L’INDE (or DE L’INDE): French India
ÉTABLISSEMENTS DE
L’OCEANIE: French Polynesia
ÉTAT DU CAMEROUN: Cameroun
ÉTAT FRANÇAIS: France
ÉTAT IND. DU CONGO: Congo
ETIOPIA, ETHIOPIE,
ETHIOPIENNES: Ethiopia (formerly Abyssinia).
ÉTS. FRANCS. DE L’OCEANIE: French Polynesia
ΕΛΛΑC, ΕΛΛΑΣ: Greece
ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ: Greece

F
FACTAJ (overprint): Romania
FARIDKOT: India – Faridkot
FDO. POO: Fernando Po
FEDERATED MALAY STATES: Malaya
FEDERATION DU MALI: Mali
FEDERATION OF MALAYA: Malaya
FELDPOST (overprint): Germany
FIERA DI TRIESTE (overprint): Trieste
FILIPAS, FILIPINAS: Philippines
FILLER: Hungary
FIL (no country name): Iraq or Jordan
FN or FEN: Manchukuo
FRANCO: Philippines or Spain
FRANCOBOLO DI STATO: Italy
FRANK: Albania
FRANQUICIA: Spain
FREIE STADT DAANZIG: Danzig
FREISTAAT BAYERN (overprint): Bavaria
FRIMARKE: Denmark, Norway or Sweden
FÜRSTENTUM or FVERSTENTUM LIECHTENSTEIN: Liechtenstein

G
GARCH: Saudi Arabia
GARZON: Colombia – Tolima
GENERAL GOUVERNEMENT: Poland
GEORGIE, GEORGIENNE: Georgia
GHADAMES: Libia, under French occupation
GIORNALI STAMPE: Sardinia
GOLFE DE BENIN: Benin
GOYA: Spain
GRAND COMORE: Grand Comoro
GRAND LIBAN: Lebanon
GRØNLAND: Greenland
GROSSDEUTSCHES REICH:
Germany
GROSSDEUTSCHES REICH
GENERAL GOVERNEMENT: Poland
GROUCH: Turkey
GUANACASTE: Costa Rica
GUERCHE: Ethiopia or Saudi Arabia
GUINE or GUINE PORTUGUESA: Portuguese Guinea
GUINEA followed by CONTINENTAL, CORREOS or ESPAÑOLA: Spanish Guinea
GUINEA ECUATORIAL: Equatorial Guinea
GUINÉE or GUINÉE FRANÇAISE: French Guinea
GUYANA: British Guiana
GUYANE FRANÇAISE: French Guiana
GUY. FRANC. (overprint): French Guiana
GWALIOR: India – Gwalior

H
HAUTE SILESIE: Upper Silesia
HAUTE VOLTA: Upper Volta
HAUT-SENEGAL-NIGER: Upper Senegal & Niger
HEJAZ & NEJD, HEDJAZ &
NEDJDE: Saudi Arabia
HELVETIA: Switzerland
ΗΟΒYΗΟΒYUT: Montenegro
HOLKAR STATE: India – Indore
HRVATSKA: Jugoslavia or Croatia
HT.: Upper Senegal & Niger
HYDERABAD: India – Hyderabad
ΗΠΕIΡΟΣ: Epirus

I
IDAR: India – Idar
I.E.F.: (overprint): India
I. E. F. ‘D’ (overprint): Mesopotamia
ILES WALLIS ET FUTUNA: Wallis & Futuna Islands
IMPERIAL BRITISH EAST AFRICA COMPANY: British East Africa
INDE, INDIE: French India
INDIA with inscriptions in
Portuguese or words REIS, REAL, TANGAS or RUPIA: Portuguese India
INDIA PORT. or PORTUGUSA: Portuguese India
INDO CHINE: Indo-China
INDONESIA not preceded by “REPUBLIK”: Dutch Indies
INDORE: India – Indore
INLAND: Liberia
INSTRUCAO (overprint): Timor
INSTRUCCION: Venezuela
IRAN: Persia
IRANIENNES: Persia
IRAQ (overprint): Mesopotamia
IRIAN BARAT: West New Guinea
ISLAND: Iceland
ISLAS GALAPAGOS: Ecuador – Galapagos Islands
ITALIA, ITALIANE: Italy
ITALIAN SOMALILAND: Somalia

J
JAFFA (overprint): Russia
JAIPUR: India – Jaipur
JAMHURI ZANZIBAR TANZANIA: Zanzibar
JAVA (overprint): Dutch Indies
JEEND STATE: India – Jhind
JIND, JHIND: India – Jhind
Johor Johore: Malaya – Johore
JUGOSΛAVEJA: Jugoslavia

K
K (with no country name): Bosnia and Herzegovina
KAMERUN: Cameroun
KAMPUCHEA: Cambodia
KAP: Latvia
KARLFONDS: Austria or Bosnia
KARNTEN ABSTIMMUNG
(overprint): Austria
KAROLINEN: Caroline Islands
KEDAH: Malaya – Kedah
KELANTAN: Malaya – Kelantan
KEMAHKOTAAN or
KETAHKOTAAN: (overprint): Malaya – Johore
KENYA & UGANDA: Kenya,
Uganda & Tanzania
KENYA UGANDA TANGANYIKA: Kenya, Uganda & Tanzania
K.G.C.A. (overprint): Jugoslavia
K.G.L. or KONGELIGT: Danish West Indies or Denmark
KIBRIS CUMHURIYETI: Cyprus
KIRIBATI: Gilbert Islands
KISHANGARH: India – Kishengarh
K.K. or KAISERLICHE KONIGLICHE ÖSTERREICHISCHE POST: Austria
klaipeda: Memel
KON, KOP, KOE: Russia, South Russia, Far Eastern Republic,
Finland, Latvia or Batum
KOP: Finland
KORCA or KORCE: Albania
KORONA: Hungary
KRAΛw´VSTVO S.X.S.: Jugoslavia
KPALJEVSTVO (or KRALJEVINA) SRBA, HRVATA I SLOVENACA: Jugoslavia
KPHTH: Crete
KRAIb. UPHATOPA: Montenegro
KRONE, KRONEN: Austria
K. U. K.: Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina
K-U-K-MILITARPOST: Bosnia and Herzegovina
KURUS: Turkey
K. WURTT: Wurttemberg

L
LA GEORGIE: Georgia
LANDSTORMEN: Sweden
LATTAQUIE (overprint): Latakia
LATVIJA, LATWIJA: Latvia
LEI on Austrian stamps: Romania
LESOTHO: Basutoland
LEVA: Bulgaria
LEVANT: France – Offices in Turkey; (overprint) on stamps of Great Britain: Great Britain – Offices in Turkey; on stamps of Poland: Poland – Offices in Turkey
LIBAN, LIBANAISE: Lebanon
LIBIA, LIBYE: Libya
LIETUVA, LIETVOS: Lithuania
LIRE (overprint): Italy, under
Austrian occupation
LISBOA: Portugal
L.L.L.R.: Georgia
LÖSEN: Sweden
L.P. (overprint): Latvia
LUFTFELDPOST: Germany

M
MACAU or MACAV: Macao
MADRID: Spain
MAGYAR: Hungary
MAGYARORSZAG: Hungary
MALACCA: Malaya – Malacca
MALAGASY: Madagascar
MALAYA with no further
inscriptions, over portrait of Sultan: Malaya – Kelantan, Negri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Selangor or Trengganu; over picture of mosque: Selangor; over picture of State Arms: Negri Sembilan
MALAYAN POSTAL UNION: Malaya
MALAYA PERLIS: Malaya – Perlis
MALAYA SINGAPORE: Singapore
MALGACHE: Madagascar
MAPKA: Russia, Finland or Serbia
MARK, MARKKAA: Finland
MAROC: French Morocco or Morocco
MAROCCO or MAROKKO
(overprint): Germany – Offices in Morocco
MARRUECOS: Spanish Morocco or Morocco – Nothern Zone
M.B.D. (overprint): India – Nandgaon
MBRETNIJA SHQIPTARE: Albania
MEJICO: Mexico
MEMELGEBIET: Memel
METELIN: (overprint): Russia
MEXICANO: Mexico
MN: Korea
MOÇAMBIQUE: Mozambique
MONROVIA: Liberia
MOGA: Ukraine
MORROCCO AGENCIES: Great Britain – Offices in Morocco
MORVI: India – Morvi
MQE: Martinique
M.V.I.R. (overprint): Romania

N
NABHA: India – Nabha
NACIONES UNIDAS: United Nations
NAMIBIA: South West Africa
PARA PAR´: Montenegro or Serbia
NATIONS UNIES: United Nations
N.C.E. (overprint): New Caledonia
N.D. HRVATSKA: Croatia
NED or NEDERLANDSE ANTILLEN: Netherlands Antilles
NED or NEDERLANDS NIEUW GUINEA: Dutch New Guinea
NEDERLAND: Netherlands
NED-INDIE, NEDERL-INDIE, NEDERLANDSCH-INDIE: Dutch Indies
NEGRI SEMBILAN: Malaya – Negri Sembilan
NEZAVISNA DRZAVA HRVATSKA: Croatia
NIEUW GUINEA: Dutch New Guinea
NIPPON: Japan
NLLE. CALEDONIE: New Caledonia
NOPTO MAPKA: Serbia
NOREG, NORGE: Norway
NOUVELLE CALEDONIE: New Caledonia
NOUVELLES HEBRIDES: New Hebrides
NOWANUGGUR: India
NOWTA: Serbia
POCTA: Russia
POCT MARKA (no country name): Azerbaijan
POCTOVAJ MARKA: Finland, Russia
N. SEMBILAN: Malaya
N.S.W.: New South Wales
N.Z.: New Zealand

O
OAXACA: Mexico – Oaxaca
OCCUPATION FRANÇAISE
(overprint): Hungary
OCEANIE: French Polynesia
OFFENTLIG SAK: Norway
OFF. SAK.: Norway, official stamps
ÖFTERREICH: Austria
OKCA: Russia
ORANJE VRIJ STAAT: Orange
River Colony
ORCHA: India – Orchha
ORE: Denmark, Sweden or Norway
ORTS-POST: Switzerland
O.S.: Norway (officials).
ÖSTERREICH: Austria
ÖSTERR-POST, OSTERREICHISCHE POST: Austria
OUBANGUI-CHARI: Ubangi
ΟΛΥΜ, ΟΛΥΜΠ, or ΟΛΥΜΠIΑΚΟI: Greece

P
PAHANG: Malaya – Pahang
PAISA: Nepal
PAPUA: Papua & New Guinea
PATIALA: India – Patiala
PATMO or PATMOS (overprint): Italy–Aegean Islands–Patmo
R.S.F.S.R.: Russia
PEN, PENNI, PENNIAS: Finland
PERAK: Malaya – Perak
PERSANE: Persia
PERUANA: Peru
PERV-AEREO: Peru
PESA (overprint): German East Africa
PESETAS: (no country name): Spain
PFENNIG: Wurttemberg, Bavaria or Germany
PIASTER: Austria – Offices in Turkey or Germany – Offices in Turkey
PIASTRA or PIASTRE (overprint) on stamps of Italy: Italy – Offices in Crete and in Turkey; on stamps of Great Britain: Great Britain – Offices in Turkey; on stamps of Russia: Russia – Offices in Turkey; on stamps of France: France – Offices in Turkey
PIASTRO (overprint): Italy – Offices in Crete
PIES: India
PICE: Nepal
P.M. (overprint): Italy, military stamps
ROSSIJ: Russia or South Russia
POCZTA: Poland
POCZTA POLSKA: Poland
POLSKA: Poland
POLYNESIE FRANÇAISE: French Polynesia
R.O.P.E.T. (overprint): Ukraine
PORTEADO: Portugal
PORTE DE CONDUCCION: Peru
PORTE DE MAR: Mexico
POSTAGE, POSTAGE & REVENUE with denominations in d (pence) (shillings) or £ (pounds), and portraits of a king or queen, but no country name given; Great Britain: with denominations in annas: India – Kishengarh
POSTES: Belgium, France, French Colonies or Luxembourg
POSTES CENTIME with numeral in center of stamp covered by a
network of colored lines: France – Alsace and Lorraine, under German occupation
POSTES followed by EGYPTIENNES: Egypt or United Arab Republic; by HEDJAZ and NEJDE: Saudi Arabia; by OTTOMANES: Turkey or Mesopotamia; by picture of crescent: Afghanistan
POSTES PERSANES: Persia
POSTE VATICANE: Vatican City
POSTGEBIET OB. OFT. (overprint): Lithuania, under German occupation
POST STAMP, POST & RECEIPT with values in annas: India –
Hyderadad
POSTZEGEL (no country name): Netherlands
PRINCE FAROUK: Egypt
PRINCIPAUTÉ DE MONACO: Monaco
PRO TACNA Y ARICA: Peru
PROTECTORAT FRANÇAIS
(overprint): French Morocco
PTO. RICO, PUERTO RICO: Puerto Rico
PUTTIALA (overprint): India – Patiala
PYB or Pyb: Russia, South Russia or Finland

Q
QUINDAR, QUINTAR: Albania

R
RAJASTHAN (overprint): India – Rajasthan
RARATONGA: Cook Islands
RECARGO: Spain
REICH, REICHSPOST: Germany
REIS (no country name): Portugal
REP. DI S. MARINO: San Marino
REPOBLIKA MALAGASY:
Madagascar
REPUBBLICA ITALIANA: Italy
REPUBBLICA SOCIALE ITALIANA: Italy – Italian Social Republic
REPUB. FRANC. or REPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE: France or French Colonies
REPUBLICA DE GUINEA
ECUATORIAL: Equatorial Guinea
REPUBLICA DOMINICANA: Dominican Republic
REPUBLICA ESPANOLA: Spain
REPUBLICA MOCAMBIQUE
(overprint): Mozambique
REPUBLICA ORIENTAL: Uruguay
REPUBLICA PERUANA: Peru
REPUBLICA POPULARA ROMINA: Romania
REPUBLICA PORTUGUESA: Portugal
REPUBLIEK VAN SUID-AFRIKA: South Africa
REPUBLIK INDONESIA SERIKAT: Indonesia
REPUBLIQUE ARABE UNIE: United Arab Republic
REPUBLIQUE AUTONOME DU TOGO: Togo
REPUBLIQUE CENTRAFRICAINE: Central African Republic
REPUBLIQUE d’AZERBAIJAN: Azerbaijan
REPUBLIQUE DE CÔTE D’VOIRE: Ivory Coast
REPUBLIQUE DE GUINÉE: Guinea
REPUBLIQUE DE HAUTE VOLTA: Upper Volta
REPUBLIQUE DEMOCRATIQUE DU CONGO: Congo
REPUBLIQUE D’HAITI: Haiti
REPUBLIQUE DE CONGO: Congo or Congo Republic
REPUBLIQUE DU DAHOMEY: Dahomey
REPUBLIQUE DU MALI: Mali
REPUBLIQUE DU NIGER: Niger
REPUBLIQUE DU SENEGAL: Senegal
REPUBLIQUE DU TCHAD: Chad
REPUBLIQUED DU TOGO: Togo
REPUBLIQUE GABONAISE: Gabon
REPUBLIQUE ISLAMIQUE DE MAURITANIE: Mauritania
REPUBLIQUE LIBANAISE: Lebanon
REPUBLIQUE MALGACHE:
Madagascar (Malagasy Republic)
REPUBLIQUE RWANDAISE: Rwanda
REPUBLIQUE TOGOLAISE: Togo
REPUBLIQUE TUNISIENNE: Tunisia
R.F. (no country name): France
RHEINLAND-PFALZ: Germany – Rhine Palatinate, under military occupation
RIAL or RIALS: Persia
RIAU (overprint): Indonesia
RIN, RN.: Japan
R I S (overprint): Indonesia
RN or RIN: Japan
ROHANIA: Romania
ROMANA, ROMANIA, ROMINA: Romania
ROSS DEPENDENCY: New Zealand
ROYAUME DE L’ARABIE
SAOUDITE: Saudi Arabia
ROYAUME DE YEMEN: Yemen
ROYAUME DU BURUNDI: Burundi
ROYAUME DU CAMBODGE:
Cambodia
ROYAUME DU LAOS: Laos
ROYAUME DU MAROC: Morocco
RP: Liechtenstein or Switzerland
R. P. ROMINA: Romania
R.S.M.: San Marino
RWANDA: Ruanda-Urundi

S
SAARE (overprint): Saar
SAARGEBIET: Saar
SAARLAND, SAARPOST: Saar
SACHSEN: Saxony
SAHARA ESPAÑOL or SAHARA OCCIDENTAL: Spanish Sahara
ST. CHRISTOPHER-NEVIS-ANGUILLA: St. Kitts-Nevis
S.A.K.: Saudi Arabia
SARKARI: India – Soruth
SAURASHTRA or SOURRASHTRA: India – Soruth
SEJM WILNIE: Central Lithuania
SELANGOR: Malaya – Selangor
SEN: Japan or Ryukyu Islands
SERBIEN (overprint): Serbia
SERVICIO POSTAL MEXICANA: Mexico
SEVILLA-BARCELONA: Spain
SHQIPENIA, SHQIPENIE, SHQIPERIA, SHQIPERIJA, SHQIPERISE, SHQIPNI, SHQIPNIJA, SHQIPONIES: Albania
SICILIA: Two Sicilies
SIEGE DE LA LIGUE ARABE: Morocco
SIRMOOR: India – Sirmoor
SKILLING: Denmark or Norway
SLOVENSKA POSTA or SLOVENSKO: Czechoslovakia – Slovakia
SLOVENSKO: Czechoslovakia – Slovakia
SLOVENSKY STAT, SLOVENSKENO (overprint): Czechoslovakia
S. MARINO: San Marino
SN: Japan
SOL: Peru
SOLDI: Austria – Lombardy-Venetia
SOLIDARITE FRANÇAISE: French Colonies, general issue
SOMALIA ITALIANA: Italian Somaliland
SONORA: Mexico
SORUTH: India – Soruth
SOUDAN (overprint): Sudan
SOUDAN FRANÇAIS: French Sudan
SOURASHTRA: India – Soruth
SPANISH WESTERN SAHARA: Spanish Sahara
S.Q. TRSTA-VUJA: Trieste
SRI LANKA: Ceylon
SRODKOWA LITVA: Central Lithuania
ST or STG: Siam
STATE OF SINGAPORE: Singapore
S. THOME (or TOME) E PRINCIPE: St. Thomas & Prince Islands
STOTHHKH: Bulgaria
S.T. TRSTA-VUJA: Trieste
STT VUJA or VUJNA: Trieste; (overprint): Trieste
SUIDAFRIKA: South Africa
SUIDWES AFRIKA: South-West Africa
SUOMI: Finland
SURINAME: Surinam
SVERIGE: Sweden
S. W. A. (overprint): South West Africa
SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC: Syria
SYRIE, SYRIENNE: Syria

T
TAKCA: Bulgaria
TAKSE: Albania
TANGANYIKA KENYA UGANDA: Kenya, Uganda & Tanzania
TANGER with “Correo Espanol”: Spanish Morocco – Tangier; (overprint) on postage due stamps of France: French Morocco, postage due stamps; on stamps of Spain: Spanish Morocco – Tangier
TANGIER: Great Britain – Offices in Morocco
TANZANIA, UGANDA, KENYA: Kenya, Uganda & Tanzania
TAXA DE GUERRA with values in AVOS: Macao; with values in O$: Portuguese Africa; with values in RP: Portuguese India; with values in REIS: Portuguese Guinea
T.C.E.K.: Turkey
TCHAD: Chad
T. C. POSTALARI: Turkey
TE BETALEN: Netherlands, Dutch Indies, Netherlands Antilles or
Surinam; also preceded by
“A PAYER”: Belgium
TERRITOIRE DE IFNI (overprint): Ifni
TERRITOIRE DU NIGER: Niger
TERRITORIO DE IFNI (ESPAÑA): Ifni
TERRITORIO DEL AFRICA
OCCIDENTAL ESPAÑOL: Spanish West Africa
TERRITORIOS (or TERRS.) ESPAÑOLES DEL GOLFO DE GUINEA: Spanish Guinea
TETUAN: Spanish Morocco – Tetuan
THAILAND or THAI: Siam
THRACE INTERALLIEE or THRACE OCCIDENTALE (overprint): Thrace
TIMBRE INMPERIAL JOURNAUX: France
TIMBRE POSTE (overprint): French Morocco
TJENESTE-FRIMARKE: Denmark
TJENESTEFRIMERKE: Norway
TOGA: Tonga
TOLIMA: Colombia – Tolima
TOUVA: Tannu Tuva
TRANS-JORDAN: Jordan
TRANSKEI: South Africa
TRENGGANU: Malaya – Trengganu
TRIPOLI: Tripolitania; preceded by “FIERA CAMPIONARI”: Libya
T. Ta. C.: Turkey
TUNIS, TUNISIE: Tunisia
TURKIYE CUMHURIYETI
POSTALARI: Turkey
TURKIYE, TURK POSTALARI: Turkey
TUVALU: Ellice Islands

U
PARSTVO: Bulgaria
PARSTVObwΛGAREJ: Bulgaria
U.A.R.: United Arab Republic
UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA: South Africa
UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANGANYIKA & ZANZIBAR: Tanzania
UNTEA (overprint): West New Guinea
PRGA GORA: Montenegro, under
Italian administration

V
VALLES D’ANDORRE: Andorra
VATHY: France – Offices in Turkey
VATICANE: Vatican City
VENDA: South Africa
VENEZ. VENEZOLANA,
VENEZOLANO: Venezuela
VIET-NAM CONG-HOA: Viet Nam
VUJA STT or VUJNA STT: Trieste; (overprint) on stamps of Jugoslavia: Trieste

W
WEST IRIAN: West New Guinea
WESTERN SAMOA: Samoa
WN: Korea

X
XARTO NMOE: Greece
X´J´RA: Montenegro
X´Λ´RA: Montenegro
XII CAMPIONARIA TRIPOLI: Libya

Y
YCA (overprint): Peru – Yca
Y. C. C. P.: Ukraine
YCCP (overprint): Ukraine
YCTAB: Montenegro
YEN, YN.: Japan, Manchukuo or Ryukyu Islands
UKRAINSwKA: Ukraine

Z
Z. AFR. REPUBLIEK, ZUID AFRIKAANSCHE REPUBLIEK: Transvaal
ZAIRE: Belgian Congo
ZAMBIA: Northern Rhodesia
ZEGELREGT: Transvaal
ZELAYA: Nicaragua – Zelaya
ZENTRALER KURIERDIENST: Germany
ZIMBABWE: Southern Rhodesia
ZONA PROTECTORADO ESPAÑOL (overprint): Spanish Morocco
ZONE FRANCAISE: Germany, under French occupation
ZRACNA POSTA: Trieste
ZUIDWEST AFRIKA: South West Africa

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