This Day in History… January 31, 1919

Happy Birthday Jackie Robinson

U.S. #2016 – Robinson was the 5th honoree in the Black Heritage series.

Jackie Robinson was born on January 31, 1919, in Cairo, Georgia.

The grandson of a slave, Jack Roosevelt Robinson was the youngest of five children raised by a single mother. He excelled at sports from a young age, playing football, basketball, track, and baseball at Pasadena Junior College. In 1938, he was honored as the region’s Most Valuable Player in baseball.

Robinson’s older brother Matthew was also an athlete, earning the silver medal at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin. He encouraged his younger brother to follow his love of sports.

U.S. #3186c – Robinson stamp from the 1940s Celebrate the Century sheet.

Jackie went on to become the first student at the University of California to win varsity letters in four sports. However, he didn’t graduate, dropping out just months prior. Instead, he moved to Hawaii and played for the semi-professional football team, the Honolulu Bears. His time there was cut short when he was drafted for World War II. Though he never saw combat, he was court-martialed for refusing to give up his seat on a bus. He was later acquitted and granted an honorable discharge.

U.S. #3408a – From the 2000 Legends of Baseball sheet.

After leaving the Army in 1944, Robinson committed his energy to professional baseball, which was segregated at that time. In 1945, he played for the Kansas City Monarchs in the Negro-American League. Then he met Branch Rickey, president of the Brooklyn Dodgers, who believed it was time to integrate Major League Baseball. He knew the first black player in the major leagues couldn’t be just anyone – he needed someone that could face the harsh criticism of the media and be able to “turn the other cheek.” And he found the man for the job – Jackie Robinson.

In 1945, history was made when Robinson signed a contract with the Montreal Royals, the Brooklyn Dodgers’ best farm team. His debut with the Royals on April 18, 1946, was legendary. In five at-bats, he hit a three-run homer and three singles, stole two bases, and scored four times. Robinson was promoted to the Dodgers the following spring. He played his first major league game on April 15, 1947, a defining moment not only in sports but also in history. Robinson earned respect as a baseball player because of his talents as a fielder, batter, and daring base runner.

U.S. #3408a FDC – 2000 Jackie Robinson First Day Cover.

Robinson’s career was full of great moments. In 1947, he was named Rookie of the Year. One of his best years was 1949, when he batted .342, scored 122 runs, and had 124 runs batted in. He was the National League’s Most Valuable Player that year. In 1962, Robinson was the first black player inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame.

U.S. #3186c FDC – 1999 Jackie Robinson First Day Cover.

Even under pressure, Robinson performed well. On the last day of the 1951 regular season, the Dodgers were tied with the Philadelphia Phillies in an extra-inning game. With the bases loaded and two out, Robinson dove to grab a hard line drive and was knocked unconscious. Two innings later, he hit a game-winning homer that put the Dodgers into the pennant race.

Item #M5005 pictures Jackie Robinson and other Hall of Famers.

During his career, Robinson was insulted, sent hate mail, intentionally hit by pitches, and issued death threats. Following his example, many African-Americans rejected their “separate but equal” status, and fought for integration. People of all races admired his dignified courage against fierce prejudice.

Click here for a neat Jackie Robinson documentary.

Click here to read last year’s discussion about This Day in History.

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