#2768 – 1993 29c Broadway Musicals: Porgy & Bess

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U.S. #2768
29¢ Porgy and Bess

Issue Date: July 14, 1993
City: New York, NY
Quantity: 128,735,000
Printed By: American Banknote Corporation
Printing Method:
Photogravure
Perforations:
11 horizontally
Color: Multicolored
 
When Porgy and Bess opened on Broadway in 1935, it was the realization of a longtime dream of George Gershwin’s. After reading Du Bose Heyward’s book “Porgy” in 1926, he had written Heyward hoping to use the book as the basis for an opera. Heyward was interested in the prospect, but both men had other commitments, forcing them to postpone the project. Finally in 1933, the two, along with Ira Gershwin and Dorothy Heyward, began work on what would become the most popular opera written by an American composer.
 
A black “folk opera”, Porgy and Bess is set in Catfish Row, a Negro tenement in Charleston, South Carolina. Forced into hiding after murdering a man, Crown flees, leaving behind his girlfriend Bess, who falls in love with the crippled Porgy. Crown later returns to take Bess away, but is killed by Porgy out of self-defense. When Porgy is taken to jail, Sportin’ Life, who is also in love with Bess, tempts her to run off with him. Believing she will never see Porgy again, she agrees. The play ends with Porgy, who, free from jail, leaves in search of Bess.
 
The 1935 run of 124 performances was modest by Broadway standards; for an opera, it was exceptional. Since then it has been performed throughout the world.
 

Birth of George Gershwin

1973 8¢ George Gershwin stamp
US #1484 includes a scene from Porgy and Bess and is from the American Arts issue.

George Gershwin was born Jacob Gershwine on September 26, 1898, in Brooklyn, New York.  A successful composer and pianist, he created beloved orchestral compositions, popular jazz standards, as well as Broadway and Hollywood hits.

1973 8¢ George Gershwin Fleetwood First Day Cover
US #1484 – Fleetwood First Day Cover

Born to Russian immigrants, George was the second of four children.  His older brother Ira would also grow up to be a songwriter.  The family moved frequently as their father explored a variety of business ventures.  They spent most of their childhood in the Yiddish Theater District.  George and Ira often went to local Yiddish theaters and George occasionally performed on stage as an extra.

Gershwin showed little interest in music until he was 10 years old.  It was at that time he heard a friend play violin and was moved by the sound.  Shortly after, his parents bought Ira a piano, but George ended up falling in love with it and playing it more.  George then sought out a piano teacher, studying under Charles Hambitzer until 1918.

1973 8¢ George Gershwin Colorano Silk Cachet First Day Cover
US #1484 – Colorano Silk Cachet First Day Cover

Gershwin dropped out of school at 15 to work as a song plugger in New York’s Tin Pan Alley.  He was paid $15 a week to perform songs to help sell sheet music.  Gershwin then published his first song, “When You Want ‘Em, You Can’t Get ‘Em, When You’ve Got ‘Em, You Don’t Want ‘Em,” in 1916, earning 50¢.  That same year he began producing hundreds of songs for different music roll companies and self-playing pianos.

Gershwin briefly worked in vaudeville and found some success with his 1917 ragtime song, “Rialto Ripples.”  He got his first national hit in 1919 with “Swanee,” which was made popular by performer Al Jolson.  The first production for which he wrote the entire score was La, La Lucille (1919).  Gershwin then collaborated with William Daly on the Broadway musicals Piccadilly to Broadway (1920), For Goodness’ Sake (1922), and Our Nell (1923).

1973 8¢ George Gershwin Classic First Day Cover
US #1484 – Classic First Day Cover

Gershwin then composed his first major composition, Rhapsody in Blue, in 1924.  It became his most popular work, emphasizing his talent for blending different musical styles, such as jazz and classical.  In 1922, he worked on the experimental jazz opera, Blue Monday.

In the 1920s, Gershwin went to Paris for a while to study under French composers, but was turned down.  Maurice Ravel told him, “Why become a second-rate Ravel when you’re already a first-rate Gershwin.”  While in France, Gershwin wrote An American in Paris, which went on to become an American and European standard.

1999 33¢ Broadway Songwriters: Ira and George Gershwin stamp
US #3345 – The first song the Gershwin brothers composed together was “The Real American Folk Song” (1918).

Over the course of his career, George and his brother Ira collaborated on more than 20 productions, including Lady Be Good (1924), Oh, Kay! (1926), Funny Face (1927), Strike Up the Band (1927), Show Girl (1929), and Girl Crazy (1930).  These included popular songs “Embraceable You” and I Got Rhythm.”  Their 1931 musical Of Thee I Sing became the first musical comedy to win the Pulitzer Prize for Drama.

1993 29¢ Broadway Musicals: Porgy & Bess stamp
US #2768 – from the Broadway Musicals issue

In the summer of 1934, Gershwin visited DuBose Heyward, author of the novel Porgy.  Gershwin was inspired by this meeting to compose the music for the opera Porgy and Bess (1935).  It was initially a commercial failure, as critics couldn’t decide if it was an opera or Broadway musical.  It eventually became the most popular opera written by an American composer.

1999 Grenada Birth of the Silver Screen stamps
Grenada #2882-83 includes a stamp honoring Gershwin.

In 1935, Gershwin moved to Hollywood, California, and turned his attention to films.  He wrote Shall We Dance for Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers, and A Damsel in Distress for Astaire, Joan Fontaine, and Gracie Allen.  In 1937, Gershwin began suffering from painful headaches, coordination issues, and blackouts.  He collapsed on the night of July 9 and was rushed to the hospital where doctors discovered he had a brain tumor.  They rushed a neurosurgeon across the country to remove it, but Gershwin died on July 11, 1937 at just 38 years old. His death at such a young age was a shock to the world.  A memorial concert was held at the Hollywood Bowl that September.

 
 
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U.S. #2768
29¢ Porgy and Bess

Issue Date: July 14, 1993
City: New York, NY
Quantity: 128,735,000
Printed By: American Banknote Corporation
Printing Method:
Photogravure
Perforations:
11 horizontally
Color: Multicolored
 
When Porgy and Bess opened on Broadway in 1935, it was the realization of a longtime dream of George Gershwin’s. After reading Du Bose Heyward’s book “Porgy” in 1926, he had written Heyward hoping to use the book as the basis for an opera. Heyward was interested in the prospect, but both men had other commitments, forcing them to postpone the project. Finally in 1933, the two, along with Ira Gershwin and Dorothy Heyward, began work on what would become the most popular opera written by an American composer.
 
A black “folk opera”, Porgy and Bess is set in Catfish Row, a Negro tenement in Charleston, South Carolina. Forced into hiding after murdering a man, Crown flees, leaving behind his girlfriend Bess, who falls in love with the crippled Porgy. Crown later returns to take Bess away, but is killed by Porgy out of self-defense. When Porgy is taken to jail, Sportin’ Life, who is also in love with Bess, tempts her to run off with him. Believing she will never see Porgy again, she agrees. The play ends with Porgy, who, free from jail, leaves in search of Bess.
 
The 1935 run of 124 performances was modest by Broadway standards; for an opera, it was exceptional. Since then it has been performed throughout the world.
 

Birth of George Gershwin

1973 8¢ George Gershwin stamp
US #1484 includes a scene from Porgy and Bess and is from the American Arts issue.

George Gershwin was born Jacob Gershwine on September 26, 1898, in Brooklyn, New York.  A successful composer and pianist, he created beloved orchestral compositions, popular jazz standards, as well as Broadway and Hollywood hits.

1973 8¢ George Gershwin Fleetwood First Day Cover
US #1484 – Fleetwood First Day Cover

Born to Russian immigrants, George was the second of four children.  His older brother Ira would also grow up to be a songwriter.  The family moved frequently as their father explored a variety of business ventures.  They spent most of their childhood in the Yiddish Theater District.  George and Ira often went to local Yiddish theaters and George occasionally performed on stage as an extra.

Gershwin showed little interest in music until he was 10 years old.  It was at that time he heard a friend play violin and was moved by the sound.  Shortly after, his parents bought Ira a piano, but George ended up falling in love with it and playing it more.  George then sought out a piano teacher, studying under Charles Hambitzer until 1918.

1973 8¢ George Gershwin Colorano Silk Cachet First Day Cover
US #1484 – Colorano Silk Cachet First Day Cover

Gershwin dropped out of school at 15 to work as a song plugger in New York’s Tin Pan Alley.  He was paid $15 a week to perform songs to help sell sheet music.  Gershwin then published his first song, “When You Want ‘Em, You Can’t Get ‘Em, When You’ve Got ‘Em, You Don’t Want ‘Em,” in 1916, earning 50¢.  That same year he began producing hundreds of songs for different music roll companies and self-playing pianos.

Gershwin briefly worked in vaudeville and found some success with his 1917 ragtime song, “Rialto Ripples.”  He got his first national hit in 1919 with “Swanee,” which was made popular by performer Al Jolson.  The first production for which he wrote the entire score was La, La Lucille (1919).  Gershwin then collaborated with William Daly on the Broadway musicals Piccadilly to Broadway (1920), For Goodness’ Sake (1922), and Our Nell (1923).

1973 8¢ George Gershwin Classic First Day Cover
US #1484 – Classic First Day Cover

Gershwin then composed his first major composition, Rhapsody in Blue, in 1924.  It became his most popular work, emphasizing his talent for blending different musical styles, such as jazz and classical.  In 1922, he worked on the experimental jazz opera, Blue Monday.

In the 1920s, Gershwin went to Paris for a while to study under French composers, but was turned down.  Maurice Ravel told him, “Why become a second-rate Ravel when you’re already a first-rate Gershwin.”  While in France, Gershwin wrote An American in Paris, which went on to become an American and European standard.

1999 33¢ Broadway Songwriters: Ira and George Gershwin stamp
US #3345 – The first song the Gershwin brothers composed together was “The Real American Folk Song” (1918).

Over the course of his career, George and his brother Ira collaborated on more than 20 productions, including Lady Be Good (1924), Oh, Kay! (1926), Funny Face (1927), Strike Up the Band (1927), Show Girl (1929), and Girl Crazy (1930).  These included popular songs “Embraceable You” and I Got Rhythm.”  Their 1931 musical Of Thee I Sing became the first musical comedy to win the Pulitzer Prize for Drama.

1993 29¢ Broadway Musicals: Porgy & Bess stamp
US #2768 – from the Broadway Musicals issue

In the summer of 1934, Gershwin visited DuBose Heyward, author of the novel Porgy.  Gershwin was inspired by this meeting to compose the music for the opera Porgy and Bess (1935).  It was initially a commercial failure, as critics couldn’t decide if it was an opera or Broadway musical.  It eventually became the most popular opera written by an American composer.

1999 Grenada Birth of the Silver Screen stamps
Grenada #2882-83 includes a stamp honoring Gershwin.

In 1935, Gershwin moved to Hollywood, California, and turned his attention to films.  He wrote Shall We Dance for Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers, and A Damsel in Distress for Astaire, Joan Fontaine, and Gracie Allen.  In 1937, Gershwin began suffering from painful headaches, coordination issues, and blackouts.  He collapsed on the night of July 9 and was rushed to the hospital where doctors discovered he had a brain tumor.  They rushed a neurosurgeon across the country to remove it, but Gershwin died on July 11, 1937 at just 38 years old. His death at such a young age was a shock to the world.  A memorial concert was held at the Hollywood Bowl that September.