#553 – 1925 1 1/2c Harding, yellow brown

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U.S. #553
Series of 1922-25 1 ½¢ Harding
Flat Plate Printing

Issue Date: March 19, 1925
First City: Washington, DC
Quantity Issued: 1,208,187,883
Printed by: Bureau of Engraving and Printing
Printing Method: Flat plate
Perforation: 11 gauge
Color: Yellow brown
 
U.S. #553 was the first 1 1/2-cent stamp issued in the U.S. – as well as being the first fractional postage stamp.

The Series of 1922-25
and the Wheels of Progress
In 1847, when the printing presses first began to move, they didn’t roll – they “stamped” in a process known as flat plate printing. The Regular Series of 1922 was the last to be printed by flat plate press, after which stamps were produced by rotary press printing.
 
By 1926, all denominations up to 10¢ – except the new ½¢ – were printed by rotary press. For a while, $1 to $5 issues were done on flat plate press due to smaller demand.
 
In 1922, the Post Office Department announced its decision to issue a new series of stamps to replace the Washington-Franklin series, which had been in use since 1908. Many criticized the change, believing it was being made to satisfy collectors rather than to fill an actual need. However, the similar designs and colors of the current stamps caused confusion, resulting in a substantial loss in revenue each year. In busy situations, postal clerks could not tell at a glance if the correct postage was being used.
 
Postal employees requested a variety of designs which could easily be distinguished from one another. Great care was taken to make sure the new designs could not be confused. Although the frames are similar, the vignettes (central designs) are distinctive. Prominent Americans, as well as scenes of national interest, were chosen as subjects for the new series.
 
In addition to issuing new designs, the Department developed a plan to first distribute a small number of each stamp on a particular date in a selected town which was of historical and geographical significance to the subject. The plan greatly increased interest and began a new trend of collecting stamps on covers or envelopes postmarked on the first day of issue.
 
Warren Harding Gets Fond Farewell
 Warren Harding was a frequent subject on stamps such as U.S. #605 in the few years after his death. Harding was beloved across the country when he died in August 1923 while still in office. An estimated three million mourners gathered to watch his funeral train pass by. The New York Times called it “the most remarkable demonstration in American history of affection, respect, and reverence for the dead.” 
America's 29th President
Warren Gamaliel Harding was born November 2, 1865, in Blooming Grove, Ohio.  When he was 10 years old, Harding began working for his father’s weekly newspaper.  In college, he worked on the school newspaper and gained a reputation as a gifted public speaker. 

Harding then moved to Marion, Ohio, and bought the struggling Marion Star newspaper in 1884.  Though he wrote in support of the Republican Party, his fair reporting of both sides earned him the respect of Ohio politicians.  Within ten years, Harding’s paper grew to be one of the most popular in the county.  And when Harding reorganized his business, he allowed them to buy stock in Harding Publishing Co., the first profit-sharing agreement in Ohio.

Harding began his political career in 1899, when he won a seat in the Ohio State Senate. After serving two terms, Harding ran for governor of Ohio in 1903.  He was defeated, but was given the position of lieutenant governor.  In 1914, he was elected to the US Senate, a post he held until his presidential inauguration in 1921.

In running for the presidency in 1920, Harding promised to return America “to normalcy” and healing from World War I and the policies of President Wilson.  Harding conducted a front-porch campaign from his home in Marion, Ohio, while his opponent traveled over 20,000 miles.  Over 600,000 people came to visit him. In addition, entertainers such as Al Jolson and Mary Pickford entertained the crowds.  Henry Ford and Thomas Edison also met with Harding and supported his campaign.

The results of November’s election were the first in US history to be covered on the radio.  Harding and his running mate Calvin Coolidge received 60 percent of the national vote, the highest percentage ever recorded up to that time. 

During his campaign, Harding promised to appoint the best men he could find for his Cabinet.  Some of his choices fulfilled this promise.  Unfortunately, he also felt a sense of duty to men who supported his run for office and gave them influential positions as well.  These men, later called the “Ohio gang,” would damage Harding’s presidency.  Many historians believe Harding was not aware of the corruption happening inside his administration.  However, his choice of questionable men to serve in his Cabinet tarnished the reputation of his administration.

Harding worked to make the Federal government smaller and more efficient.  The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 said the President must submit a budget to the Congress each year.  The General Accounting Office provided oversight for Federal expenses.  As director, Charles Dawes reduced government spending by 25 percent the first year and cut it in half after two years. 

The President felt lowering tax rates would help the country recover from the postwar depression it was experiencing.  Under the guidance of Andrew Mellon, the top tax rate was reduced from 73 percent to 25 over the course of four years.  Unemployment fell and tax revenue increased.  Historians Schweikart and Allen wrote the economic policies “... produced the most vibrant eight year burst of manufacturing and innovation in the nation’s history.”

Ongoing labor disputes led to violence during Harding’s administration, and more than once he had to call in federal troops to bring peace.  In a time when the rights of African Americans were severely limited, Harding supported civil rights and educational opportunities.  He advocated for a Federal anti-lynching bill, but it was defeated in the Senate.

On November 21, 1921, Harding signed the Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act, which funded health centers around the country.  It was the first large Federal social welfare program in America.  The law encouraged doctors to offer health care to prevent illness as well as treating it.  Child welfare workers were trained to make sure children were being taken care of. 

Harding relied heavily on Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes to conduct foreign affairs.  Hughes led the Washington Armament Conference to reduce naval power in the hopes of maintaining peace.  The U.S. hosted Japan, Great Britain, France, Italy, China, Belgium, Netherlands, and Portugal for the three-month conference. The agreements reached brought stability to the Pacific region.  Trade agreements with China were also signed. 

Harding improved the nation’s relationship with countries to the south.  The Thomson-Urrutia Treaty awarded Colombia $25 million as payment for land used for the Panama Canal.  The President also improved relations with Mexico, which had been strained during Wilson’s administration.  Under Harding’s direction, the military began leaving occupied areas of Central America and the Caribbean.

In 1923, scandals in Harding’s administration were beginning to surface.  He told a journalist, “I have no trouble with my enemies, but my friends, they’re the ones that keep me walking the floor at nights!”  The President’s health was suffering, so he decided to take a tour to the West and Alaska to reconnect with the people and promote his agenda.  Accompanied by his wife and trusted advisors, Harding’s train left Washington on June 20.  After giving speeches throughout the Midwest, he and his party traveled to Alaska.  Harding was the first President to visit there.

On the way back to the lower 48 states, Harding toured British Columbia, the first sitting President to visit Canada.  As the trip continued, Harding became progressively weaker.  The train traveled to San Francisco.  On August 2, Harding died in a hotel suite of an apparent heart attack.  The President’s body was transported by train across the country.  Millions of Americans lined the track all along the route to pay their respects.  His state funeral took place on August 8 in the Capitol building.  Harding’s term was the shortest of any President in the 20th century.
 
 
 
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U.S. #553
Series of 1922-25 1 ½¢ Harding
Flat Plate Printing

Issue Date: March 19, 1925
First City: Washington, DC
Quantity Issued: 1,208,187,883
Printed by: Bureau of Engraving and Printing
Printing Method: Flat plate
Perforation: 11 gauge
Color: Yellow brown
 
U.S. #553 was the first 1 1/2-cent stamp issued in the U.S. – as well as being the first fractional postage stamp.

The Series of 1922-25
and the Wheels of Progress
In 1847, when the printing presses first began to move, they didn’t roll – they “stamped” in a process known as flat plate printing. The Regular Series of 1922 was the last to be printed by flat plate press, after which stamps were produced by rotary press printing.
 
By 1926, all denominations up to 10¢ – except the new ½¢ – were printed by rotary press. For a while, $1 to $5 issues were done on flat plate press due to smaller demand.
 
In 1922, the Post Office Department announced its decision to issue a new series of stamps to replace the Washington-Franklin series, which had been in use since 1908. Many criticized the change, believing it was being made to satisfy collectors rather than to fill an actual need. However, the similar designs and colors of the current stamps caused confusion, resulting in a substantial loss in revenue each year. In busy situations, postal clerks could not tell at a glance if the correct postage was being used.
 
Postal employees requested a variety of designs which could easily be distinguished from one another. Great care was taken to make sure the new designs could not be confused. Although the frames are similar, the vignettes (central designs) are distinctive. Prominent Americans, as well as scenes of national interest, were chosen as subjects for the new series.
 
In addition to issuing new designs, the Department developed a plan to first distribute a small number of each stamp on a particular date in a selected town which was of historical and geographical significance to the subject. The plan greatly increased interest and began a new trend of collecting stamps on covers or envelopes postmarked on the first day of issue.
 
Warren Harding Gets Fond Farewell
 Warren Harding was a frequent subject on stamps such as U.S. #605 in the few years after his death. Harding was beloved across the country when he died in August 1923 while still in office. An estimated three million mourners gathered to watch his funeral train pass by. The New York Times called it “the most remarkable demonstration in American history of affection, respect, and reverence for the dead.” 
America's 29th President
Warren Gamaliel Harding was born November 2, 1865, in Blooming Grove, Ohio.  When he was 10 years old, Harding began working for his father’s weekly newspaper.  In college, he worked on the school newspaper and gained a reputation as a gifted public speaker. 

Harding then moved to Marion, Ohio, and bought the struggling Marion Star newspaper in 1884.  Though he wrote in support of the Republican Party, his fair reporting of both sides earned him the respect of Ohio politicians.  Within ten years, Harding’s paper grew to be one of the most popular in the county.  And when Harding reorganized his business, he allowed them to buy stock in Harding Publishing Co., the first profit-sharing agreement in Ohio.

Harding began his political career in 1899, when he won a seat in the Ohio State Senate. After serving two terms, Harding ran for governor of Ohio in 1903.  He was defeated, but was given the position of lieutenant governor.  In 1914, he was elected to the US Senate, a post he held until his presidential inauguration in 1921.

In running for the presidency in 1920, Harding promised to return America “to normalcy” and healing from World War I and the policies of President Wilson.  Harding conducted a front-porch campaign from his home in Marion, Ohio, while his opponent traveled over 20,000 miles.  Over 600,000 people came to visit him. In addition, entertainers such as Al Jolson and Mary Pickford entertained the crowds.  Henry Ford and Thomas Edison also met with Harding and supported his campaign.

The results of November’s election were the first in US history to be covered on the radio.  Harding and his running mate Calvin Coolidge received 60 percent of the national vote, the highest percentage ever recorded up to that time. 

During his campaign, Harding promised to appoint the best men he could find for his Cabinet.  Some of his choices fulfilled this promise.  Unfortunately, he also felt a sense of duty to men who supported his run for office and gave them influential positions as well.  These men, later called the “Ohio gang,” would damage Harding’s presidency.  Many historians believe Harding was not aware of the corruption happening inside his administration.  However, his choice of questionable men to serve in his Cabinet tarnished the reputation of his administration.

Harding worked to make the Federal government smaller and more efficient.  The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 said the President must submit a budget to the Congress each year.  The General Accounting Office provided oversight for Federal expenses.  As director, Charles Dawes reduced government spending by 25 percent the first year and cut it in half after two years. 

The President felt lowering tax rates would help the country recover from the postwar depression it was experiencing.  Under the guidance of Andrew Mellon, the top tax rate was reduced from 73 percent to 25 over the course of four years.  Unemployment fell and tax revenue increased.  Historians Schweikart and Allen wrote the economic policies “... produced the most vibrant eight year burst of manufacturing and innovation in the nation’s history.”

Ongoing labor disputes led to violence during Harding’s administration, and more than once he had to call in federal troops to bring peace.  In a time when the rights of African Americans were severely limited, Harding supported civil rights and educational opportunities.  He advocated for a Federal anti-lynching bill, but it was defeated in the Senate.

On November 21, 1921, Harding signed the Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act, which funded health centers around the country.  It was the first large Federal social welfare program in America.  The law encouraged doctors to offer health care to prevent illness as well as treating it.  Child welfare workers were trained to make sure children were being taken care of. 

Harding relied heavily on Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes to conduct foreign affairs.  Hughes led the Washington Armament Conference to reduce naval power in the hopes of maintaining peace.  The U.S. hosted Japan, Great Britain, France, Italy, China, Belgium, Netherlands, and Portugal for the three-month conference. The agreements reached brought stability to the Pacific region.  Trade agreements with China were also signed. 

Harding improved the nation’s relationship with countries to the south.  The Thomson-Urrutia Treaty awarded Colombia $25 million as payment for land used for the Panama Canal.  The President also improved relations with Mexico, which had been strained during Wilson’s administration.  Under Harding’s direction, the military began leaving occupied areas of Central America and the Caribbean.

In 1923, scandals in Harding’s administration were beginning to surface.  He told a journalist, “I have no trouble with my enemies, but my friends, they’re the ones that keep me walking the floor at nights!”  The President’s health was suffering, so he decided to take a tour to the West and Alaska to reconnect with the people and promote his agenda.  Accompanied by his wife and trusted advisors, Harding’s train left Washington on June 20.  After giving speeches throughout the Midwest, he and his party traveled to Alaska.  Harding was the first President to visit there.

On the way back to the lower 48 states, Harding toured British Columbia, the first sitting President to visit Canada.  As the trip continued, Harding became progressively weaker.  The train traveled to San Francisco.  On August 2, Harding died in a hotel suite of an apparent heart attack.  The President’s body was transported by train across the country.  Millions of Americans lined the track all along the route to pay their respects.  His state funeral took place on August 8 in the Capitol building.  Harding’s term was the shortest of any President in the 20th century.