Series of 1902-03 8¢ Martha Washington
Issue Date: December 6, 1902
Quantity issued: 176,841,474 (estimate)
Printed by: Bureau of Engraving and Printing
Method: Flat plate
Watermark: Double line
Color: Violet black
When the Post Office Department announced its decision to feature an American woman on a stamp, letters poured in with suggestions. The Department chose America’s First Lady. This stamp, considered to be the most beautiful of the set, is also the only one to include the subject’s first name – Martha.
To include Martha Washington, officials had to “retire” General Sherman from his position on the 8¢ stamp. The Civil War hero wouldn’t appear on a U.S. stamp again until 1936, when he was featured on the 3¢ Greatest U.S. Army War Heroes issue. Sherman’s next appearance on a U.S. stamp was in 1995 with the Civil War commemorative sheet.
America’s First Lady
Martha Washington, also known as Lady Washington and the Mother of the United States, was the nation’s first First Lady. At a time when a young America was proving its strength and independence from England, Martha’s husband, General George Washington, was unanimously elected as the President. With no previous examples to follow, the Washingtons established the duties and responsibilities of the President and First Lady for generations to come.
America’s first First Lady was born Martha Dandridge on June 2, 1731, on her parents’ Chestnut Grove Plantation near Williamsburg, Virginia. The oldest daughter of planter John Dandridge and his wife Frances Jones, Martha had a privileged childhood. She enjoyed riding horses, gardening, sewing, playing the spinet piano, and dancing. She also received an education in basic mathematics, reading, and writing – an uncommon practice for girls of the time. She was likely educated by family servant Thomas Leonard in plantation management, crop sales, alternative medicine, and breeding and raising livestock.
When Martha was 18, she met and married Daniel Parke Custis, a wealthy plantation owner who was about 20 years older than she was. The couple lived at Custis’ White House Plantation on the Pamunkey River. Custis showered Martha with the finest clothes and lavish gifts imported from England. Martha gave birth to four children, two (Daniel and Francis) who died in childhood, and two (John and Martha) who both died before the age of 30. In 1757, Custis died, leaving Martha the wealthiest widow in the region, in full charge of the 17,000-acre plantation.
Life with George Washington
A year after her first husband’s death, Martha was visiting the neighboring mansion of Richard Chamberlayne. Colonel George Washington, on his way to Williamsburg to meet with the governor, stopped at Chamberlayne’s home as a courtesy. Washington planned to stay for just a few hours, but once he was introduced to the charming widow, decided to stay for the night and return as soon as his business was done the next day. The two were married on January 6, 1759. After the marriage, Washington left the colonial arm of the British military, and settled with Martha at his expanded Mount Vernon estate. They spared no expense in caring for their home and Martha’s two children.
In 1775, Washington was appointed Commander in Chief of the Continental Army, leaving Martha and the children at home. That winter, the family traveled two weeks to Cambridge, Massachusetts, to spend Christmas with him, and Martha stayed until June of the following year. Throughout the American Revolutionary War, Martha often traveled great distances to visit her husband in the field, raising morale by entertaining officers and their wives. She encouraged other women to assist in any way possible. She organized sick wards and women’s sewing circles, convincing society ladies to use whatever they had – including fine napkins and tablecloths – to repair clothing and make bandages for the troops.
Leaving the comforts of home to assist the troops during the cold winters, Martha was soon well-known throughout the colonies for her graciousness, and was referred to as “Lady Washington.” It was during this time, in 1781, that Martha’s son John Parke Custis (Jack) died from camp fever. Following Jack’s death, Martha and George raised Jack’s children, Eleanor Parke Custis and George Washington Parke Custis, who was the father of Mrs. Robert E. Lee.
America’s First First Lady
In 1789, George Washington was unanimously elected the first President of the United States. It wasn’t until years later that the wife of the President received an official title, so the first First Lady was referred to as Lady Washington. Initially, Martha was unhappy with her husband’s position – she longed for the private life, away from the attention of a nation. Despite this, she stood by her husband, fulfilling and exceeding the duties set before her.
Martha Washington was most known for being a gracious and hospitable hostess, bringing the tact and discretion of 58 years of high-class Virginia society to the position of First Lady. Mimicking the customs of European royal courts, Martha presented her nation as a legitimate democracy to world leaders. She entertained guests at least twice a week, taking little satisfaction in “formal compliments and empty ceremonies [and] fond of only what comes from the heart.” Future First Lady Abigail Adams described Martha as “one of those unassuming characters which create Love and Esteem.”
Lady Washington also showed a great interest in helping those in need. She was popular among Revolutionary war veterans, for whom she provided financial support and assisted in obtaining pardons. She also provided financial assistance and other support to Americans and Europeans alike. Many viewed her as an American heroine, sending her lavish gifts as thanks. Although she rarely spoke publicly about politics, she attended political debates, promoted education for girls, and supported women’s independence.
In Martha’s eight years as America’s First Lady, she exemplified the ideal for future presidential wives to follow. She endured the sacrifices of her position (lack of privacy, independence, and free speech), presided over hospitable gatherings, and cared for the needy. Thrust into a new and unfamiliar position, Martha Washington faced these hurdles and set the standard for the position that would later be known as that of the First Lady.
Life After the White House
In March 1797, the Washingtons returned to Mount Vernon for the peaceful, private life Martha longed for. On December 14, 1799, George Washington died. Martha’s grief was slightly lessened by the birth of her great-granddaughter, Francis Parke Lewis. In her last months, Martha burned the letters she and George had once written each other, preserving their privacy. She died on May 22, 1802.
Series of 1902-03
In 1902, the Postmaster General commissioned an entirely new series of general issues. Until this time, the current regular issues had been in use since 1890 with relatively few changes.
The ornate new designs, however, were not the only addition to the 1902 series. The 13-cent denomination was added, and two new faces were introduced – Benjamin Harrison and Admiral David Farragut. For the first time in postal history, an American woman was honored.
A slight change was also made in the format. Each stamp in this series bears the inscription, “Series 1902.” This caused some concern abroad, as many European philatelists wondered whether the U.S. was planning on issuing new stamps each year. Many of the stamps, however, did not even reach post offices until 1903, and the next general issues were not produced until 1908.