1988 22c Bicentenary Statehood: Georgia

# 2339 - 1988 22c Bicentenary Statehood: Georgia

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U.S. #2339
1988 22¢ Georgia
Bicentenary Statehood

  • 4th stamp in Bicentenary Statehood Series
  • Pictures Georgia state tree – live oak

Stamp Category:  Commemorative
Series: 
Bicentenary Statehood
Value: 
22¢, first-class rate
First Day of Issue: 
January 6, 1988
First Day City: 
Atlanta, Georgia
Quantity Issued: 
165,845,000
Printed by: 
American Bank Note Company
Printing Method: 
Lithographed, engraved, & photogravure
Format: 
Panes of 50 in sheets of 200
Perforations:  11

 

Why the stamp was issued:  As part of a series honoring the 200th statehood anniversaries of the first 13 US states.

 

About the stamp design:  Several different designs were submitted for this stamp, including a Scarlett O’Hara-inspired Southern belle, agricultural scenes, sea oats of Georgia’s “Golden Isles,” and a Greek revival column.  The final selected image was submitted by first-time stamp designer and Georgia native Greg Harlin.  It features a watercolor image of a live oak, the state tree, covered in Spanish moss.  The faint skyline of modern Atlanta appears in the background.

 

Special design details:  It was pointed out after the stamp was released that the oak tree pictured on the stamp is only found along the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains, so the view of Atlanta in the background was unlikely.

 

First Day City:  The First Day ceremony for this stamp was held at the state capitol building in Atlanta.

 

About the Bicentenary Statehood Series:  The 1935 Michigan Centenary stamp is often considered America’s first statehood stamp.  However, that stamp actually used the wrong date – Michigan ratified its constitution in 1837, but wasn’t granted statehood until 1837.  The first correct statehood stamp marked the 100th anniversary of Arkansas in 1936.  In the years since, many other statehood stamps were issued.  However, among all these statehood stamps, 13 were missing – the first 13 states that formed our nation.  With this series, the USPS planned to honor those state as they deserved.

 

From 1987-1990, the Bicentenary Statehood Series commemorated the signing of the Constitution by representatives of the first 13 Colonies.  The stamps were issued in the 200th year after each state approved the Constitution.  They were issued in the order each colony became a state, though not always on the exact date of ratification.  Each stamp shows traditional symbols or scenes from the state.

 

History the stamp represents:  On January 2, 1788, Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the US Constitution, making it our fourth state.

 

The first human inhabitants of Georgia were the Mound Builders, a prehistoric Native American tribe. Over time, the Creek tribe settled in the South and the Cherokee in the North.

 

The first European to explore was probably Hernando de Soto of Spain. He crossed the region on a trip from Florida to the Mississippi River in 1540. Spain, France, and England all claimed the southeastern portion of North America as part of their territory, but it was a group of Englishmen who planned the first colony there in 1730. They named it Georgia, in honor of King George II.

 

In 1732, King George granted a 21-year charter for the colony. The charter was granted to “Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America.” Despite Spanish protests, on November 17, 1732, James Oglethorpe set sail from England with a group of 120 colonists. They arrived at Yamacraw Bluff on February 12, 1733. Today, the city of Savannah is located on that site. During the trustees’ 21-year control of the colony, 4,000 colonists arrived in Georgia.

 

The English used Georgia as a means of conducting illegal trade with Spain’s colonies in the West Indies. The two countries also disputed the proper boundary between Georgia and Florida. These conflicts led to the outbreak of war in 1739. Oglethorpe attempted to conquer Florida but failed. In 1742, Oglethorpe’s troops crushed a Spanish force landing at St. Simon’s Island, Georgia, in the Battle of Bloody Marsh. This victory ended the fighting in America, although the war continued in Europe.

 

King George made Georgia a royal province in 1754. Despite its prosperity, Georgia became involved in the movement for independence that was flourishing in other colonies. In 1775, when the Revolutionary War broke out in Massachusetts, support for independence solidified, and Georgia’s patriots seized power. Georgian forces first fought British troops in March 1776, when a British warship attempted to seize 11 rice boats in Savannah. Only two of the ships were captured. On July 24, 1778, Georgia ratified the Articles of Confederation.

 

In December 1778, the British captured Savannah. American forces, supported by the French Navy, attempted to liberate the city but failed. By the end of 1779, the British controlled the entire state except for Wilkes County. The British were finally driven from Georgia in 1782. The War for Independence ended in 1783.

 

On January 2, 1788, Georgia became the fourth state in the Union to ratify the United States Constitution. The state entered a period of rapid development in the 1790s as settlers and land companies began to spread into the region. In 1795, land companies used bribes to make large land purchases from the state. The land was purchased for about 1.5¢ an acre.   The developers planned to re-sell the land at a huge profit. This scheme became known as the Yazoo Fraud. Angry Georgians elected a new legislature that repealed the earlier sales, but many of the land developers insisted their purchases were legal. In 1802, Georgia sold all of its land west of the Chattahoochee River to the US government. In 1814, the federal government finally paid $4,200,000 to settle the Yazoo claims.

 

The state and federal governments also worked to remove all of the Native Americans from Georgia. In 1838, federal troops forced the last remaining Cherokee Indians to move to reservation land in Oklahoma in 1838 as part of what is known as the Trail of Tears. Settlers quickly cleared the land for farming, especially for growing cotton. By 1840, an extensive railroad system had developed through the state to transport people and agricultural products.

 

Georgia’s economy was based on cotton production and depended heavily on slavery. On January 19, 1861, Georgia became the fifth state to secede from the Union. Early in the war, Union forces blockaded the port of Savannah. Confederate troops won the first large battle in Georgia at Chickamauga in September 1863.

 

However, the war quickly turned against Georgia. Union troops, commanded by General William T. Sherman, captured the city of Atlanta in September 1864. In November, they burned the city and began the legendary “march to the sea.” Sherman’s forces marched toward Savannah, devastating everything they came across in order to “make Georgia howl.” As they cut a 60-mile-wide path through the state, destroying factories, mills, railroads, and other public buildings, they destroyed about $100 million in property. Largely unopposed, General Sherman captured Savannah in December 1864.

 

After the Civil War ended in 1865, Georgia continued to face hard times. Military rule lasted in the state on and off until 1870. Georgia was readmitted to the Union in 1868, but in 1869 it was expelled due to its failure to ratify the 15th amendment guaranteeing people of color the right to vote. The amendment was ratified in 1870, and Georgia was permanently readmitted into the United States on July 15, 1870.

 

From the 1870s until the Great Depression, Georgia experienced economic growth. This period was marked by increases in manufacturing, trade, and banking, as well as railroad construction. With the start of World War II (1939-1945), Georgia’s economy resumed its industrial expansion. Large numbers of farmers and agricultural workers took factory jobs in the cities. The majority of these workers stayed in the cities after the war ended. By 1950, the United States census revealed that more Georgians worked in manufacturing than agriculture. In 1960, the census determined that the majority of Georgians lived in urban areas. The state continues to thrive economically.

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U.S. #2339
1988 22¢ Georgia
Bicentenary Statehood

  • 4th stamp in Bicentenary Statehood Series
  • Pictures Georgia state tree – live oak

Stamp Category:  Commemorative
Series: 
Bicentenary Statehood
Value: 
22¢, first-class rate
First Day of Issue: 
January 6, 1988
First Day City: 
Atlanta, Georgia
Quantity Issued: 
165,845,000
Printed by: 
American Bank Note Company
Printing Method: 
Lithographed, engraved, & photogravure
Format: 
Panes of 50 in sheets of 200
Perforations:  11

 

Why the stamp was issued:  As part of a series honoring the 200th statehood anniversaries of the first 13 US states.

 

About the stamp design:  Several different designs were submitted for this stamp, including a Scarlett O’Hara-inspired Southern belle, agricultural scenes, sea oats of Georgia’s “Golden Isles,” and a Greek revival column.  The final selected image was submitted by first-time stamp designer and Georgia native Greg Harlin.  It features a watercolor image of a live oak, the state tree, covered in Spanish moss.  The faint skyline of modern Atlanta appears in the background.

 

Special design details:  It was pointed out after the stamp was released that the oak tree pictured on the stamp is only found along the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains, so the view of Atlanta in the background was unlikely.

 

First Day City:  The First Day ceremony for this stamp was held at the state capitol building in Atlanta.

 

About the Bicentenary Statehood Series:  The 1935 Michigan Centenary stamp is often considered America’s first statehood stamp.  However, that stamp actually used the wrong date – Michigan ratified its constitution in 1837, but wasn’t granted statehood until 1837.  The first correct statehood stamp marked the 100th anniversary of Arkansas in 1936.  In the years since, many other statehood stamps were issued.  However, among all these statehood stamps, 13 were missing – the first 13 states that formed our nation.  With this series, the USPS planned to honor those state as they deserved.

 

From 1987-1990, the Bicentenary Statehood Series commemorated the signing of the Constitution by representatives of the first 13 Colonies.  The stamps were issued in the 200th year after each state approved the Constitution.  They were issued in the order each colony became a state, though not always on the exact date of ratification.  Each stamp shows traditional symbols or scenes from the state.

 

History the stamp represents:  On January 2, 1788, Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the US Constitution, making it our fourth state.

 

The first human inhabitants of Georgia were the Mound Builders, a prehistoric Native American tribe. Over time, the Creek tribe settled in the South and the Cherokee in the North.

 

The first European to explore was probably Hernando de Soto of Spain. He crossed the region on a trip from Florida to the Mississippi River in 1540. Spain, France, and England all claimed the southeastern portion of North America as part of their territory, but it was a group of Englishmen who planned the first colony there in 1730. They named it Georgia, in honor of King George II.

 

In 1732, King George granted a 21-year charter for the colony. The charter was granted to “Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America.” Despite Spanish protests, on November 17, 1732, James Oglethorpe set sail from England with a group of 120 colonists. They arrived at Yamacraw Bluff on February 12, 1733. Today, the city of Savannah is located on that site. During the trustees’ 21-year control of the colony, 4,000 colonists arrived in Georgia.

 

The English used Georgia as a means of conducting illegal trade with Spain’s colonies in the West Indies. The two countries also disputed the proper boundary between Georgia and Florida. These conflicts led to the outbreak of war in 1739. Oglethorpe attempted to conquer Florida but failed. In 1742, Oglethorpe’s troops crushed a Spanish force landing at St. Simon’s Island, Georgia, in the Battle of Bloody Marsh. This victory ended the fighting in America, although the war continued in Europe.

 

King George made Georgia a royal province in 1754. Despite its prosperity, Georgia became involved in the movement for independence that was flourishing in other colonies. In 1775, when the Revolutionary War broke out in Massachusetts, support for independence solidified, and Georgia’s patriots seized power. Georgian forces first fought British troops in March 1776, when a British warship attempted to seize 11 rice boats in Savannah. Only two of the ships were captured. On July 24, 1778, Georgia ratified the Articles of Confederation.

 

In December 1778, the British captured Savannah. American forces, supported by the French Navy, attempted to liberate the city but failed. By the end of 1779, the British controlled the entire state except for Wilkes County. The British were finally driven from Georgia in 1782. The War for Independence ended in 1783.

 

On January 2, 1788, Georgia became the fourth state in the Union to ratify the United States Constitution. The state entered a period of rapid development in the 1790s as settlers and land companies began to spread into the region. In 1795, land companies used bribes to make large land purchases from the state. The land was purchased for about 1.5¢ an acre.   The developers planned to re-sell the land at a huge profit. This scheme became known as the Yazoo Fraud. Angry Georgians elected a new legislature that repealed the earlier sales, but many of the land developers insisted their purchases were legal. In 1802, Georgia sold all of its land west of the Chattahoochee River to the US government. In 1814, the federal government finally paid $4,200,000 to settle the Yazoo claims.

 

The state and federal governments also worked to remove all of the Native Americans from Georgia. In 1838, federal troops forced the last remaining Cherokee Indians to move to reservation land in Oklahoma in 1838 as part of what is known as the Trail of Tears. Settlers quickly cleared the land for farming, especially for growing cotton. By 1840, an extensive railroad system had developed through the state to transport people and agricultural products.

 

Georgia’s economy was based on cotton production and depended heavily on slavery. On January 19, 1861, Georgia became the fifth state to secede from the Union. Early in the war, Union forces blockaded the port of Savannah. Confederate troops won the first large battle in Georgia at Chickamauga in September 1863.

 

However, the war quickly turned against Georgia. Union troops, commanded by General William T. Sherman, captured the city of Atlanta in September 1864. In November, they burned the city and began the legendary “march to the sea.” Sherman’s forces marched toward Savannah, devastating everything they came across in order to “make Georgia howl.” As they cut a 60-mile-wide path through the state, destroying factories, mills, railroads, and other public buildings, they destroyed about $100 million in property. Largely unopposed, General Sherman captured Savannah in December 1864.

 

After the Civil War ended in 1865, Georgia continued to face hard times. Military rule lasted in the state on and off until 1870. Georgia was readmitted to the Union in 1868, but in 1869 it was expelled due to its failure to ratify the 15th amendment guaranteeing people of color the right to vote. The amendment was ratified in 1870, and Georgia was permanently readmitted into the United States on July 15, 1870.

 

From the 1870s until the Great Depression, Georgia experienced economic growth. This period was marked by increases in manufacturing, trade, and banking, as well as railroad construction. With the start of World War II (1939-1945), Georgia’s economy resumed its industrial expansion. Large numbers of farmers and agricultural workers took factory jobs in the cities. The majority of these workers stayed in the cities after the war ended. By 1950, the United States census revealed that more Georgians worked in manufacturing than agriculture. In 1960, the census determined that the majority of Georgians lived in urban areas. The state continues to thrive economically.