#75 – 1861-66 5c Jefferson, red brown

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U.S. #75
Series of 1861-66 5¢ Jefferson

Earliest Known Use: January 2, 1862
Quantity issued:
 1,000,000 (estimate)
Printed by: National Bank Note Company
Method: Flat plate
Watermark: None
Perforation: 12
Color: Red brown
 
Cyrus Durand, William D. Nichols, and William E. Marshall of the National Bank Note Company engraved James Macdonough’s design for the 1862 5¢ Jefferson issue. 
 
Thomas Jefferson believed in the ability of people to govern themselves.  Philosopher, inventor, diplomat, and statesman, he authored the Declaration of Independence, and was elected the third President of the United States in 1801.
 

Department Of State Established 

On July 27, 1789, the Department of Foreign Affairs was created, which was later renamed the Department of State.

When the U.S. Constitution was ratified in 1788, it specified that the President would be responsible for the country’s foreign relations. President George Washington soon realized he’d need help and requested the creation of a new executive department to help handle foreign affairs.

The House of Representatives and Senate agreed and approved legislation creating such a department on July 21, 1789. President Washington then signed the legislation on July 27, 1789, officially creating the Department of Foreign Affairs. It was the first department established under the U.S. Constitution. As the office’s responsibilities expanded to cover domestic duties as well as foreign, the agency’s name was changed to the Department of State.

The department was soon responsible for taking the census, managing the U.S. Mint, and keeping the Great Seal in addition to representing the country to other nations. Washington appointed the first Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson, on September 29, 1789. Jefferson was serving as the minister to France at the time. John Jay, who had been secretary of foreign affairs under the Articles of Confederation, continued in the post until Jefferson returned.

Jefferson returned to America and assumed his new duties in 1790. He supported France in its war with England, laid the foundation for the protection of American territory from Great Britain and Spain, established navigational rights on the Mississippi River, and created commerce treaties with Spain and England.

Over time, many of the Secretary of State’s domestic responsibilities were turned over to other departments as they were developed, though the secretary of state is still the keeper of the Great Seal. Another duty the secretary has is receiving the written document if a President or Vice President decides to resign.

The primary role of the department is to help the President develop and carry out a foreign policy. It employs about 5,000 people and has diplomats in more than 250 locations around the world. The State Department also serves foreigners trying to visit or immigrate to the U.S. and citizens who are living or traveling abroad. It’s involved in aid programs, fighting international crime, and training foreign militaries as well. The agency also promotes our businesses abroad, opening up new markets. This department issues passports and travel warnings as well.

Many U.S. Secretaries of State have been honored on postage, including:

 

John Marshall

 

James Madison

 

James Monroe

 

John Quincy Adams

 

Henry Clay

 

Martin Van Buren

 

Daniel Webster

 

John C. Calhoun

 

James Buchanan

 

William Jennings Bryan

 

Charles Evans Hughes

 

Cordell Hull

 

George C. Marshall

 

John Foster Dulles

 

Official Mail 

Official Mail stamps are genuine postage stamps, although they were never available at any post office. These unique stamps are called Officials because their use was strictly limited to government mail. Before 1873, government agencies had “franking” privileges. This meant that government mail could be sent free of postage as long as it bore an authorized signature on the envelope. As of July 1, 1873, “franking” privileges were discontinued and special official stamps were put into circulation for use on government mail.

Each department was issued its own set of stamps. Many of the designs were taken from the current series of regular postage stamps being printed at that time – the so-called “Bank Note Issues.” The department names were inscribed on the stamps instead of the usual “U.S. Postage” and each set was printed in its own distinct color. Only the Post Office Department had its own unique design – a numeral in an oval frame.

In 1884, the Officials were declared obsolete and were replaced with the “penalty” envelope. These envelopes were imprinted with an official emblem and carried a warning against unauthorized use by private individuals.

 
The Series of 1861-66
In 1861, the United States began printing paper notes to finance its Civil War operations. Since the back of the notes were printed in green, they were commonly referred to as “greenbacks.” At first, the notes were redeemable in coins, but as the war raged on, they became merely promises of the U.S. government to pay. Since the notes had no metal money behind them as security, people began to hoard their gold and silver coins.
 
By 1862, greenbacks were being used more frequently, as coins disappeared from circulation. Eventually, small change vanished completely, and greenbacks were the only currency being used. Since much of what people needed cost less than a dollar, they found themselves faced with an unusual dilemma: how to pay for things without using their precious coins. Soon people were buying a dollar’s worth of stamps and using them as change instead.
 
As stamps became an accepted form of currency, several new ideas developed. In 1862, John Gault patented the idea of encasing postage stamps in circular metal frames behind a transparent shield of mica. Stores and manufacturing companies such as Ayer’s Pills, Burnett’s Cooking Extracts, and Lord & Taylor began impressing their name and product on the back of the metal frame and began using them for advertising. Known as encased postage, this form of change was widely used during the war.
 
Another new development was the idea of postage currency, which was approved by Congress on July 17, 1862. As a substitute for small change, U.S. Treasurer Francis Spinner began affixing stamps, singly and in multiples, to Treasury Paper. Although this was not considered actual money, it made stamps negotiable as currency. Eventually, the Treasury began printing the stamp designs on the paper, rather than using the stamps themselves. Postage currency remained in use until 1876, when Congress authorized the minting of silver coins.
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U.S. #75
Series of 1861-66 5¢ Jefferson

Earliest Known Use: January 2, 1862
Quantity issued:
 1,000,000 (estimate)
Printed by: National Bank Note Company
Method: Flat plate
Watermark: None
Perforation: 12
Color: Red brown
 
Cyrus Durand, William D. Nichols, and William E. Marshall of the National Bank Note Company engraved James Macdonough’s design for the 1862 5¢ Jefferson issue. 
 
Thomas Jefferson believed in the ability of people to govern themselves.  Philosopher, inventor, diplomat, and statesman, he authored the Declaration of Independence, and was elected the third President of the United States in 1801.
 

Department Of State Established 

On July 27, 1789, the Department of Foreign Affairs was created, which was later renamed the Department of State.

When the U.S. Constitution was ratified in 1788, it specified that the President would be responsible for the country’s foreign relations. President George Washington soon realized he’d need help and requested the creation of a new executive department to help handle foreign affairs.

The House of Representatives and Senate agreed and approved legislation creating such a department on July 21, 1789. President Washington then signed the legislation on July 27, 1789, officially creating the Department of Foreign Affairs. It was the first department established under the U.S. Constitution. As the office’s responsibilities expanded to cover domestic duties as well as foreign, the agency’s name was changed to the Department of State.

The department was soon responsible for taking the census, managing the U.S. Mint, and keeping the Great Seal in addition to representing the country to other nations. Washington appointed the first Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson, on September 29, 1789. Jefferson was serving as the minister to France at the time. John Jay, who had been secretary of foreign affairs under the Articles of Confederation, continued in the post until Jefferson returned.

Jefferson returned to America and assumed his new duties in 1790. He supported France in its war with England, laid the foundation for the protection of American territory from Great Britain and Spain, established navigational rights on the Mississippi River, and created commerce treaties with Spain and England.

Over time, many of the Secretary of State’s domestic responsibilities were turned over to other departments as they were developed, though the secretary of state is still the keeper of the Great Seal. Another duty the secretary has is receiving the written document if a President or Vice President decides to resign.

The primary role of the department is to help the President develop and carry out a foreign policy. It employs about 5,000 people and has diplomats in more than 250 locations around the world. The State Department also serves foreigners trying to visit or immigrate to the U.S. and citizens who are living or traveling abroad. It’s involved in aid programs, fighting international crime, and training foreign militaries as well. The agency also promotes our businesses abroad, opening up new markets. This department issues passports and travel warnings as well.

Many U.S. Secretaries of State have been honored on postage, including:

 

John Marshall

 

James Madison

 

James Monroe

 

John Quincy Adams

 

Henry Clay

 

Martin Van Buren

 

Daniel Webster

 

John C. Calhoun

 

James Buchanan

 

William Jennings Bryan

 

Charles Evans Hughes

 

Cordell Hull

 

George C. Marshall

 

John Foster Dulles

 

Official Mail 

Official Mail stamps are genuine postage stamps, although they were never available at any post office. These unique stamps are called Officials because their use was strictly limited to government mail. Before 1873, government agencies had “franking” privileges. This meant that government mail could be sent free of postage as long as it bore an authorized signature on the envelope. As of July 1, 1873, “franking” privileges were discontinued and special official stamps were put into circulation for use on government mail.

Each department was issued its own set of stamps. Many of the designs were taken from the current series of regular postage stamps being printed at that time – the so-called “Bank Note Issues.” The department names were inscribed on the stamps instead of the usual “U.S. Postage” and each set was printed in its own distinct color. Only the Post Office Department had its own unique design – a numeral in an oval frame.

In 1884, the Officials were declared obsolete and were replaced with the “penalty” envelope. These envelopes were imprinted with an official emblem and carried a warning against unauthorized use by private individuals.

 
The Series of 1861-66
In 1861, the United States began printing paper notes to finance its Civil War operations. Since the back of the notes were printed in green, they were commonly referred to as “greenbacks.” At first, the notes were redeemable in coins, but as the war raged on, they became merely promises of the U.S. government to pay. Since the notes had no metal money behind them as security, people began to hoard their gold and silver coins.
 
By 1862, greenbacks were being used more frequently, as coins disappeared from circulation. Eventually, small change vanished completely, and greenbacks were the only currency being used. Since much of what people needed cost less than a dollar, they found themselves faced with an unusual dilemma: how to pay for things without using their precious coins. Soon people were buying a dollar’s worth of stamps and using them as change instead.
 
As stamps became an accepted form of currency, several new ideas developed. In 1862, John Gault patented the idea of encasing postage stamps in circular metal frames behind a transparent shield of mica. Stores and manufacturing companies such as Ayer’s Pills, Burnett’s Cooking Extracts, and Lord & Taylor began impressing their name and product on the back of the metal frame and began using them for advertising. Known as encased postage, this form of change was widely used during the war.
 
Another new development was the idea of postage currency, which was approved by Congress on July 17, 1862. As a substitute for small change, U.S. Treasurer Francis Spinner began affixing stamps, singly and in multiples, to Treasury Paper. Although this was not considered actual money, it made stamps negotiable as currency. Eventually, the Treasury began printing the stamp designs on the paper, rather than using the stamps themselves. Postage currency remained in use until 1876, when Congress authorized the minting of silver coins.