1985 22¢ D-rate Eagle
Complete Set of 3
· Fourth variety of alphabet rate change stamps
· D-rate covered the 22¢ rate that went into effect on February 17, 1985
· Set includes sheet, coil, and booklet stamps
Stamp Category: Definitive
Set: D-rate Rate Change Stamps
Value: 22¢, rate for first-class mail
First Day of Issue: February 1, 1985
First Day City: Los Angeles, CA
#2111 Sheet: 2,250,000,000
#2112 Coil: 3,029,956,000
#2113 Booklet: 1,308,570,000
Printed by: Bureau of Engraving and Printing
Printing Method: #2111-12 – Photogravure, #2113 – Engraved
Format: Panes of 100 in Sheets of 460; Coil Panes of 100 in Sheets of 460; Booklet panes of 10
Perforations: 11; 10 Vertically; 11 on 2 or 3 sides
Why the stamps were issued: For the rate increase from 20¢ to 22¢ that took effect on February 17, 1985.
About the stamp designs: The design for the D-rate stamps was generally the same as had been used on the A through C rate stamps. They were each printed in a single color with the same stylized eagle, designed by Bradbury Thompson. The C and D rate stamps differed from the A and B rate stamps with the addition of “Domestic Mail,” at the request of the Universal Postal Union.
The D-rate stamps were ordered and printed in late 1981, in anticipation of a future rate change. They sat in storage until the 22¢ rate was announced for 1985.
Unusual fact about these stamps: Imperforate versions of the sheet and coil stamps have been discovered.
While the sheet and coil D-rate stamps were printed by gravure, the booklet stamp was the only one printed by intaglio. The booklet stamps are also slightly smaller and more well-defined, due to their engraving.
About Rate Change Stamps: On May 22, 1978, the US issued its first in a long series of alphabet rate change stamps. In the years prior, other stamps had been issued non-denominated for impending rate changes. Because postage rates for late 1975 were uncertain, both of the Christmas stamps that year (#1579 and #1580) were issued without denominations. These were the first non-denominated US stamps.
As postal costs increased, the USPS began to increase their rates for the various classes of mail. Before becoming effective, however, these rate increases had to be submitted to the Postal Rate Commission for approval. Often, the PRC would take as much as a year conducting studies and compiling data before accepting or rejecting the changes. If the rate increase was approved, the Postal Service then had to rush to design and produce the new stamps.
In 1975, after the rate had changed from 10¢ to 13¢, the Postal Service printed a new non-denominated stamp so it would be ready and waiting for the next rate change. A letter of the alphabet was used to represent the unknown rate, so the stamps could meet customer demand until new definitives bearing the actual rate were printed. When the rate increased in 1978 from 13¢ to 15¢, the first letter rate change stamps, #1735, 1736, and 1743, were put into use.
The Postal Service really kept its patrons on their toes in 1981 with two postal increases – one in March and another in November. Printed shortly after the 1978 rate change, the “B” stamps were put in storage until they were needed in 1981. The same stylized eagle used on the “A” stamp was also used for this stamp. The only difference between the two stamps was the background color – instead of orange, a rich purple was chosen. This issue was printed in sheets (perforated 11 x 10½), booklets (perforated 10), and also in coils (perforated 10 vertically). On March 22, 1981, the rate officially changed from 15¢ to 18¢.
On November 1, 1981, a second postal increase, to 20¢, went into effect. Once again, the stylized eagle design was used and the background color was changed to brown. In addition to being printed in sheets and coils, the C-rate stamp was also printed in booklet format.
Late in 1981, after the rate had changed from 18¢ to 20¢, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing printed the non-denominated “D” stamp in anticipation of the next change in rate. For nearly four years, some 6.6 billion stamps – printed in sheet, coil, and booklet form – awaited distribution. Their moment finally came when the new 22¢ rate was approved. Like the previous alphabet stamps, this issue pictured a stylized eagle but was green in color.
In 1988, following the USPS’s announcement that the first-class letter rate would change to 25¢, the non-denominated “E” stamp was issued. Responding to unfavorable comments concerning the “drab” appearance of the previous non-denominated issues, the Citizens Stamp Advisory Committee decided to link the stamp subject to the letter E. Shown from a moon’s-eye view, the dramatic “Earth” design appears almost three dimensional. It was printed in sheet, coil, and booklet forms.
Prepared long in advance, the ‘F’ stamp was ready and waiting for the 1991 rate change. Like the 1988 ‘E’ stamp, the subject of this stamp, a single red tulip, was chosen to match the letter ‘F.’ Printing contracts were awarded to three different companies. The United States Bank Note Corporation was assigned to produce sheet stamps, the BEP printed coils and booklets, and KCS printed booklets. In addition to the Flower stamps, there was also a make-up rate stamp (#2521) and plastic flag stamp (#2522).
With a rate change scheduled for January 1, 1995, a new set of G-rate stamps were issued in December 1994 to make up the difference between the previous rate of 29¢ and the new rate of 32¢. This series was produced by more printers and in more formats than any previous rate change stamps. Due to criticism the 1991 make-up rate stamp received for its unattractive design, one stamp featured a flying dove with an olive branch in its beak. The American Bank Note Company and Stamp Venturers produced these stamps.
There were also a set of Old Glory stamps produced by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, American Bank Note Company, Stamp Venturers, and Avery-Denison. They were available in sheet, coil, booklet, and self-adhesive booklet for vending machines. The yellow stamps covered the 20¢ postcard rate, the stamps with blue background were used on presorted first-class mail, and the nonprofit presorted stamps had a green background. All the Old Glory stamps with white backgrounds covered the new 32¢ postage rate.
Due to pending postal rate increases in 1998, the US Postal Service issued a set of non-denominational stamps that feature “Uncle Sam’s hat” and weather vanes. The new postal rate, set at 33¢, went into effect January 1, 1999. The stamps were the first rate change alphabet stamps to be permitted on overseas mail.
The H-rate stamps were the final alphabet stamps, but rate change stamps would continue to be produced into the 2000s. And Forever stamps would eliminate the need for rate change stamps.
History the stamp represents: For centuries, the eagle has been a symbol of majesty and power. It is no wonder America’s founders chose the eagle as our national symbol.
About 5,000 years ago, the Sumerians portrayed an eagle in flight to show its power. The ancient Romans, Emperor Charlemagne, and Napoleon later followed suit.
An early morning battle at the start of the American Revolution woke sleeping eagles at their nearby nests. The eagles began circling the field and squawking. The patriots believed “They [were] shrieking for freedom.”
As the war raged on, the Americans sought a national symbol. For six years, the Continental Congress debated the possibilities. Finally, in 1782, one man submitted a drawing of an eagle, describing it as a symbol of “supreme power and authority.” By the end of the year, the eagle was part of the national seal. It was another five years before the eagle was officially adopted as the emblem of the United States.
Centuries ago, the eagle population numbered around 75,000. A combination of hunting and poison from insecticide saw their numbers drop to only about 800 in the 1960s, making it an Endangered Species. Several laws and conservation attempts have replenished the population. In 2007, the bald eagle was removed from the Endangered Species list and is now considered of least concern, a vast improvement in just 40 years.