#3187i – 1999 33c Celebrate the Century - 1950s: Drive-In Movies

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U.S. #3187i
33¢ Drive-in Movies
Celebrate the Century – 1950s

Issue Date: May 26, 1999
City: Springfield, MA
Quantity: 12,533,000
Printed By: Ashton-Potter (USA) Ltd
Printing Method:
Lithographed, engraved
Perforations:
11.5
Color: Multicolored
 
Before the drive-in theater became popular in the 1950s, seeing a film was not usually a family activity. Children attended a matinee during the day, while adults got dressed up to go to the theater at night. During this time, the peak of the baby-boom years, families became more interested in doing things together.
 
Richard Hollingshead Jr., of New Jersey, is credited with inventing the drive-in theater in the 1930s. To test his idea, he mounted a movie projector on the hood of his car and nailed a screen to trees in his back yard. For sound, he placed a radio behind the screen. Ramps were built for cars’ front tires to park on, so viewers in the back rows were able to see clearly. In May of 1933, his invention was assigned U.S. patent number 1,909,537.
 
Hollingshead, along with three investors, began construction on the first drive-in theater in 1933. After three weeks and a $30,000 investment, it opened in June of that year. Admission prices were 25¢ for the car, and 25¢ per person, with no car to pay more than $1 total. Soon, drive-ins were springing up all over the country. One of the largest and most elaborate theaters was built in Copiague, New York. It had an indoor viewing area that was heated and air-conditioned, a playground, cafeteria, restaurant, and a shuttle train to cover the 28 acres.
 

Birth of Jaime Escalante

2016 47¢ Jaime Escalante stamp
US #5100 shows Escalante in front of a chalkboard filled with calculus problems.

Jaime Alfonso Escalante Gutiérrez was born on December 31, 1930, in La Paz, Bolivia.  Escalante taught math to a class of students previously deemed “unteachable.”  Escalante became famous after the story of his success was re-told in a book and a movie.

Both of Escalante’s parents were teachers and he went to school for the same profession.  He taught physics and math in Bolivia for 12 years before moving to the United States in the 1960s.  He worked odd jobs, taught himself English, and earned degrees from California State University so he could teach in America.

2016 47¢ Jaime Escalante Fleetwood First Day Cover with Digital Color Postmark
US #5100 – Fleetwood First Day Cover with Digital Color Postmark

In 1974, Escalante began teaching at Los Angeles’s Garfield High School.  Many of the school’s students were considered “unteachable,” but Escalante knew that with hard work, they could flourish.  He created an Advanced Placement calculus class and pushed his 12 students to succeed.  Escalante told them that math would be their language and with this education, they could work in engineering, electronics, and computers.  One of the students claimed, “If he wants to teach us that bad, we can learn.”

1957 3¢ School Teachers stamp
US #1093 – Escalante was selected as the Best Teacher in North America by the Freedom Forum.

The school’s principal at the time opposed Escalante’s methods.  Escalante made students answer math questions before allowing them to enter the classroom.  The principal told him to just let the students in, but Escalante criticized the school, saying, “There is no teaching, no learning going on here.  We are just baby-sitting.”

2018 50¢ STEM Education stamp
US #5279 – Math stamp from the STEM Education set

Escalante came in early and stayed late and raised money to pay for the students to take Advanced Placement tests.  The school threatened to fire him over this, but never did.  When a new principal came in, he supported Escalante’s mission and made major changes to the school’s curriculum.  He cut down the number of basic math classes and made algebra a requirement.  He also prevented students from participating in extracurricular activities if they failed their tests.

In 1978, Escalante began teaching calculus to five students.  By 1982, the calculus class increased to 18 students.  When they all passed the test that year, the testing service became suspicious.  Fourteen students were asked to retake the test, which twelve did.  All twelve passed again and were able to have their grade reinstated.  Escalante’s calculus class more than doubled in size the following year to 33 students.  He also started teaching calculus at East Los Angeles College.

1980 15¢ Education stamp
US #1833 – Escalante proved that with hard work, his students could succeed.

In 1988, author Jay Matthews published the book, Escalante: The Best Teacher in America, based on the story of the 1982 calculus class.  That same year, a film based on the story was released as well: Stand and Deliver, starring Edward James Olmos.  Escalante said the film was “90% truth, 10% drama.”  The book and film made Escalante a national figure.  Soon teachers and other visitors sat in on his classes and he received visits from President Ronald Reagan and actor Arnold Schwarzenegger.

Escalante’s math program grew dramatically in the next few years.  He had over 400 students with more than 50 students in each class, exceeding the 35 student limit established by the teachers’ union.  Over time, Garfield sent more students to the local college than any other area high school.  However, Escalante had his share of critics and left the school in 1991.  He went on to teach at Hiram W. Johnson High School.  Garfield’s calculus program floundered after Escalante left.

1999 33¢ Celebrate the Century - 1950s: Drive-In Movies stamp
US #3187i – Escalante’s story was made famous in the film Stand and Deliver.

Escalante continued teaching in the US until 2001.  He returned to Bolivia to teach at the Universidad Privada del Valle but eventually moved back to the US.  In his later years, Escalante suffered from cancer and struggled financially to pay for his treatments.  Cast members from Stand and Deliver as well as former students raised money to help pay his bills.  Escalante died on March 30, 2010, from bladder cancer.  He received many honors during and after his lifetime, including the Presidential Medal of Excellence in Education, several honorary degrees, and induction into the National Teachers Hall of Fame.  But his greatest reward was his students’ success.  As he put it, “teaching is touching life.”  Escalante also has a school and asteroid named after him.

 
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U.S. #3187i
33¢ Drive-in Movies
Celebrate the Century – 1950s

Issue Date: May 26, 1999
City: Springfield, MA
Quantity: 12,533,000
Printed By: Ashton-Potter (USA) Ltd
Printing Method:
Lithographed, engraved
Perforations:
11.5
Color: Multicolored
 
Before the drive-in theater became popular in the 1950s, seeing a film was not usually a family activity. Children attended a matinee during the day, while adults got dressed up to go to the theater at night. During this time, the peak of the baby-boom years, families became more interested in doing things together.
 
Richard Hollingshead Jr., of New Jersey, is credited with inventing the drive-in theater in the 1930s. To test his idea, he mounted a movie projector on the hood of his car and nailed a screen to trees in his back yard. For sound, he placed a radio behind the screen. Ramps were built for cars’ front tires to park on, so viewers in the back rows were able to see clearly. In May of 1933, his invention was assigned U.S. patent number 1,909,537.
 
Hollingshead, along with three investors, began construction on the first drive-in theater in 1933. After three weeks and a $30,000 investment, it opened in June of that year. Admission prices were 25¢ for the car, and 25¢ per person, with no car to pay more than $1 total. Soon, drive-ins were springing up all over the country. One of the largest and most elaborate theaters was built in Copiague, New York. It had an indoor viewing area that was heated and air-conditioned, a playground, cafeteria, restaurant, and a shuttle train to cover the 28 acres.
 

Birth of Jaime Escalante

2016 47¢ Jaime Escalante stamp
US #5100 shows Escalante in front of a chalkboard filled with calculus problems.

Jaime Alfonso Escalante Gutiérrez was born on December 31, 1930, in La Paz, Bolivia.  Escalante taught math to a class of students previously deemed “unteachable.”  Escalante became famous after the story of his success was re-told in a book and a movie.

Both of Escalante’s parents were teachers and he went to school for the same profession.  He taught physics and math in Bolivia for 12 years before moving to the United States in the 1960s.  He worked odd jobs, taught himself English, and earned degrees from California State University so he could teach in America.

2016 47¢ Jaime Escalante Fleetwood First Day Cover with Digital Color Postmark
US #5100 – Fleetwood First Day Cover with Digital Color Postmark

In 1974, Escalante began teaching at Los Angeles’s Garfield High School.  Many of the school’s students were considered “unteachable,” but Escalante knew that with hard work, they could flourish.  He created an Advanced Placement calculus class and pushed his 12 students to succeed.  Escalante told them that math would be their language and with this education, they could work in engineering, electronics, and computers.  One of the students claimed, “If he wants to teach us that bad, we can learn.”

1957 3¢ School Teachers stamp
US #1093 – Escalante was selected as the Best Teacher in North America by the Freedom Forum.

The school’s principal at the time opposed Escalante’s methods.  Escalante made students answer math questions before allowing them to enter the classroom.  The principal told him to just let the students in, but Escalante criticized the school, saying, “There is no teaching, no learning going on here.  We are just baby-sitting.”

2018 50¢ STEM Education stamp
US #5279 – Math stamp from the STEM Education set

Escalante came in early and stayed late and raised money to pay for the students to take Advanced Placement tests.  The school threatened to fire him over this, but never did.  When a new principal came in, he supported Escalante’s mission and made major changes to the school’s curriculum.  He cut down the number of basic math classes and made algebra a requirement.  He also prevented students from participating in extracurricular activities if they failed their tests.

In 1978, Escalante began teaching calculus to five students.  By 1982, the calculus class increased to 18 students.  When they all passed the test that year, the testing service became suspicious.  Fourteen students were asked to retake the test, which twelve did.  All twelve passed again and were able to have their grade reinstated.  Escalante’s calculus class more than doubled in size the following year to 33 students.  He also started teaching calculus at East Los Angeles College.

1980 15¢ Education stamp
US #1833 – Escalante proved that with hard work, his students could succeed.

In 1988, author Jay Matthews published the book, Escalante: The Best Teacher in America, based on the story of the 1982 calculus class.  That same year, a film based on the story was released as well: Stand and Deliver, starring Edward James Olmos.  Escalante said the film was “90% truth, 10% drama.”  The book and film made Escalante a national figure.  Soon teachers and other visitors sat in on his classes and he received visits from President Ronald Reagan and actor Arnold Schwarzenegger.

Escalante’s math program grew dramatically in the next few years.  He had over 400 students with more than 50 students in each class, exceeding the 35 student limit established by the teachers’ union.  Over time, Garfield sent more students to the local college than any other area high school.  However, Escalante had his share of critics and left the school in 1991.  He went on to teach at Hiram W. Johnson High School.  Garfield’s calculus program floundered after Escalante left.

1999 33¢ Celebrate the Century - 1950s: Drive-In Movies stamp
US #3187i – Escalante’s story was made famous in the film Stand and Deliver.

Escalante continued teaching in the US until 2001.  He returned to Bolivia to teach at the Universidad Privada del Valle but eventually moved back to the US.  In his later years, Escalante suffered from cancer and struggled financially to pay for his treatments.  Cast members from Stand and Deliver as well as former students raised money to help pay his bills.  Escalante died on March 30, 2010, from bladder cancer.  He received many honors during and after his lifetime, including the Presidential Medal of Excellence in Education, several honorary degrees, and induction into the National Teachers Hall of Fame.  But his greatest reward was his students’ success.  As he put it, “teaching is touching life.”  Escalante also has a school and asteroid named after him.