37¢ Duke Kahanamoku
Issue Date: August 24, 2002
City: Honolulu, HI
Printed by: Avery Dennison
Printing Method: Photogravure
Perforations: Serpentine Die Cut 11 ½ x 11 ¾
The father of international surfing, Kahanamoku (1890-1968) caught the public eye first as a top Olympic swimmer, then as an expert surfer, movie actor, and finally, Hawaii’s ambassador of good will.
Duke Paoa Kahinu Mokoe Hulikohola Kahanamoku (also known as “The Duke” and “The Big Kahuna”) was born on August 24, 1890, in Haleʻākala, Honolulu, Kingdom of Hawaii. His family was related to the Kamehamehas, who’d led Hawaii for several years and were considered lower-ranking nobles.
When he was three, Duke’s family moved to Kālia, Waikiki to be closer to his family. He grew up with five brothers, three sisters, and 31 cousins. Duke attended school there, but didn’t graduate, instead leaving school to help support his family.
Duke spent much of his spare time on the beach. Surfing was an ancient Polynesian sport that had declined in most of the Pacific by 1900. “He’enalu” (wave-sliding) was still practiced in Waikiki, however, where Duke grew up. He was also a strong swimmer. In fact, in August 1911, he set a new 100-yard freestyle world record of 55.4 seconds, 4.6 seconds better than the existing world record. Duke also broke the 200-yard and 50-yard records, but the Amateur Athletic Union didn’t believe him and didn’t give him credit for these accomplishments for many years.
In spite of this snub, Duke easily qualified for the US Olympic swimming team in 1912, the first of five trips he’d make to the Olympics. In his first Olympics, in 1912, he almost slept through the 100-meter dash. He persuaded officials to delay the race long enough for him to put on a swimsuit, then went on to break the Olympic record and to win the gold medal.
Duke won two more gold medals at Antwerp in the 1920 games. Duke and his brother Samuel stood together on the podium in Paris in 1924, when Duke won the silver and Samuel won the bronze in the 100-meter freestyle event. Duke was also on the US water polo team in the 1932 Olympics, but did not participate in a game.
In between his Olympic appearances and after retiring from them, Duke traveled the world for swimming exhibitions. While on these trips he also put on surfing exhibitions, which helped to popularize the sport. Previously, it wasn’t well known outside of Hawaii. Duke brought surfing to California in 1912, and lived there for several years. During his time in California, Duke worked as a background actor and character actor in several Hollywood films.
Also while living in California Duke helped save eight fishermen from drowning in 1925. Their boat had capsized in heavy surf and Duke used his surfboard to quickly ferry the men to shore and return to the ship to rescue more men. The local police chief said it was “the most superhuman surfboard rescue act the world has ever seen.” That also led American lifeguards to start using surfboards in their rescues.
Duke returned to Hawaii and from 1932 to 1961 served as sheriff of Honolulu. He was the first person inducted into the Swimming and Surfing Halls of Fame. Duke has also been inducted into the US Olympic Hall of Fame and the Duke Kahanamoku Invitational Surfing Championships were named in his honor.
Duke died on January 22, 1968, of a heart attack. His ashes were scatted into the ocean.