1¢ Statue of Liberty
National Defense Issue
Issue Date: October 16, 1940
City: Washington, D.C.
Printed by: Bureau of Engraving and Printing
Printing Method: Rotary Press
Perforations: 11 x 10.5
Color: Bright blue green
U.S. #899 was the first in a 3-stamp series issued to raise consciousness of the need for a strong national defense, which President Franklin Roosevelt considered especially important as World War II raged in Europe. The stamp pictures the Statue of Liberty that was placed on top of fort built to defend New York against naval attacks.
The Statue of Liberty
French politician and writer Édouard René de Laboulaye was one of the first to suggest giving America a gift to mark the centennial of the American Declaration of Independence. French sculptor Frédéric Bartholdi designed the sculpture and Gustave Eiffel (designer of the Eiffel Tower) designed the iron pylon and skeletal framework of the statue.
To fund the statue, the people of France made public donations. Also, performances were used to raise money, including La liberté éclairant le monde (Liberty enlightening the world) by future famous composer Charles Gounod. In all, $250,000 was raised. Similarly, the U.S., which had agreed to build the statue’s base, held several benefit events, art exhibitions, auctions and prizefights to raise money.
Although Laboulaye initially planned to present the statue to America in 1876, a late start and several delays made this impossible. The right arm and torch were completed in time, and were put on display at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. The statue was completed in France in 1884 and was dedicated on October 28, 1886 by President Grover Cleveland.
The statue was modeled in a classic roman style based on Libertas, the ancient Roman goddess of freedom from slavery, oppression, and tyranny. Lady Liberty’s right foot is raised, showing that she is not stationary, but moving forward. Her left steps on broken shackles, representing the American dream to be free from oppression and tyranny. Her crown of seven spikes represents the Seven Seas and the seven continents, while her torch symbolizes enlightenment. Lady Liberty holds a tablet that is representative of knowledge, and reads “July 4, 1776,” the date of the Declaration of Independence. Historians debate who Liberty’s face is modeled after, but it’s likely one of two women. Some believe it was Isabella Eugene Boyer, the recently widowed wife of Isaac Singer, creator of the Singer sewing machine. Others believe the statue was modeled after sculptor Frédéric Bartholdi’s mother, Charlotte Bartholdi.
National Defense Issue
On October 16, 1940, the US Post Office Department issued a set of three stamps to raise support for a strong national defense.
By the summer of 1940, Americans wanted nothing to do with the European conflicts overseas, holding tightly to their isolationist ideals. The only aid President Franklin Roosevelt could provide (as Congress refused to pass any military bills) was repealing the arms embargo to allow the US to sell arms to Great Britain. Britain was required to pay in advance and transport the material back on their own. However, German ships sank the ships carrying them almost as fast as the weapons were produced.
Roosevelt realized it was only a matter of time until Adolf Hitler would narrow his focus on the Western Hemisphere, and felt it was his duty to prepare the nation for when that time came. Roosevelt’s first action was to put an end to the American isolationism. He worked out a deal with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to trade 50 older American destroyers for 99-year leases on strategic bases throughout the Atlantic, which would protect American interests. This began to sway the American opinion on the situation.
The next step to Roosevelt’s plan was to issue postage stamps to educate the public. He provided sketches of what he envisioned to the Post Office Department, and the final designs stayed true to the President’s vision. The stamps were each labeled with their purpose “For Defense” and included inscriptions honoring Industry, Agriculture, Army, Navy, Security, Education, Conservation, and Health as important aspects of the national well being.
The new stamps were issued on October 16, 1940, which was also the first day of registration for America’s first peacetime draft. When the stamps were issued many more Americans supported the importance of preparedness and the stamps served as a constant reminder of the importance of a strong national defense. These stamps would go on to be the workhorses of the American postal system during the war. Between the three issues, a total of 19,677,985,200 stamps were issued, more than any other US stamp series up to that time.
Click here to get all three stamps in one convenient set.