1950 3¢ Indiana Territory Issue
Issue Date: July 4, 1950
City: Vincennes, Indiana
Printed By: Bureau of Engraving and Printing
Printing Method: Rotary Press
Perforations: 11 x 10 ½
This stamp honors the centennial of the formation of the Indiana Territory, which incorporated present-day Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and parts of Michigan and Minnesota. It was issued in Vincennes, Indiana, which served as the first capital of the Indiana Territory.
Division of the Northwest Territory
The United States first acquired the Northwest Territory after the 1783 Treaty of Paris following the Civil War. The creation of the Northwest Ordinance dictated that this land would be divided and formed into separate states. According to the Ordinance, once a territory reached a population of 60,000, it would begin the process of becoming a state.
Ohio became part of the Northwest Territory in 1787. That year the Northwest Ordinance was passed, which provided for granting Ohio, and other territories,
statehood. The following year, Marietta, the first permanent European settlement in Ohio, was established by the Ohio Company of Associates. Veterans of the American Revolution were rewarded for their service with land grants. Many of these veterans settled along the Ohio River.
In 1799, William Henry Harrison was chosen to represent the territory in Congress. The following year, he created the Harrison Land Act. The legislation allowed working-class Americans to purchase government land on credit in the Northwest Territory.
The Division Act, created the following year, formed the Indiana Territory out of the western part of the Northwest Territory. In 1802, a convention met in the new capitol of Chillicothe to create a constitution in preparation for statehood. On March 1, 1803, Ohio became the 17th state to join the Union.
In 1800, the territory’s governor, future U.S. President William Henry Harrison, negotiated a purchase of 2,900,000 acres of land from Indians in southern Indiana for U.S. settlement. The legendary Shawnee Chief Tecumseh claimed the purchase was unfair. He raised an army and purchased guns from the British, but was defeated at the Battle of Tippecanoe. In 1813, Harrison again defeated Indian forces at the Battle of Thames, in which Tecumseh was killed. With this victory, pioneers were able to settle the land. On December 11, 1816, Indiana achieved statehood.