1862 10¢ Jefferson
When the Civil War erupted, the U.S. demonetized (made worthless) its postage stamps and issued new ones to prevent the South from using U.S. stockpiles. The Confederate Post Office was organized in February 1861 and took over postal operations on June 1, 1861. Some Confederate post offices used the old system of paying cash for postage, others used their own provisional issues.
Unlike the North, the South lacked the means to produce fine engraved stamps from steel plates. Hoyer and Ludwig, lithographers from Richmond, received the first contract from the Confederate States Post Office. They were inexperienced and did not have the proper equipment. Stone lithography was used instead of line engraving to produce these first stamps. The process involves the use of a grease-based medium on a stone surface. When ink is applied, the natural repulsion of grease and water creates a pattern.
The stamps produced had no perforations, so they had to be cut apart at the post office.
CSA#5 is a rose 10¢ Thomas Jefferson stamp. It was designed by Charles Ludwig and was the same image and the U.S. 5¢ stamp (Scott #12). The same transfer stone was used for this stamp as the 1861 #2, the 10¢ blue. Because of poor quality ink, there are many shades of this stamp. Only 6,700 were produced.
The first record of use is March 10, 1962. This stamp was used to send letters over 500 miles.