11Â¢ Statue of Liberty
Issue Date: June 15, 1961
City: Washington, D.C.
Printed by: Bureau of Engraving and Printing
Printing Method: Giori Press
Color: Carmine and dark violet blue
U.S. #1044A was issued to meet a new international surface mail rate that went into effect on July 1.Â According to the deputy postmaster general at that time, âThis stamp reaffirms to all the nations of the world, friends and enemies alike, the United Statesâ determination to preserve the American tradition of political and religious freedom.â
âIn God We Trustâ Made Official U.S. MottoÂ
Although it had appeared on American coins for 92 years, âIn God We Trustâ didnât become Americaâs official motto until July 30, 1956.
Itâs roots in American tradition date back to the War of 1812, when Francis Scott Key included the phrase âAnd this be our motto: In God is our Trustâ in his poem that became the national anthem, âStar-spangled Banner.â Fifty years later, as America was embroiled inâCivil War, Reverend M.R. Watkinson requested that our coins include a statement recognizing God to ârelieve us from the ignominy of heathenism.â He, and many others, wished to show that God sided with Union.
After special legislation was passed in April 1864, âIn God We Trustâ was minted on one- and two-cent coins. It appeared on various coins over the years, but not all of them. Following public outcry over its omission from a $20 coin in 1908, it was ordered that the phrase appear on all coins it had previously been minted on. Itâs been on every U.S. coin produced since 1938.
The phrase became a national matter in 1956 as America was involved in yet another conflict, the Cold War. American leaders wanted to distance us from the Soviet Union, which supported state atheism. When Florida representative Charles Edward Bennett proposed the legislation to the House, he stated that, âIn these days when imperialistic and materialistic communism seeks to attack and destroy freedom, we should continually look for ways to strengthen the foundations of our freedom.â
So Congress passed a resolution declaring âIn God We Trustâ as the national motto. President Eisenhower signed it into law on July 30, 1956. The law also required the phrase to appear on all U.S. paper currency. âIn God We Trustâ now served as an alternative or replacement for Americaâs unofficial motto, E pluribus Unum (Out of many, one), which had been adopted as part of the Great Seal of the United States in 1782.
Interestingly, two years earlier, President Eisenhower had pushed for the inclusion of âunder Godâ in the pledge of allegiance. At his 1954 Flag Day speech, Eisenhower stated that, âIn this way we are reaffirming the transcendence of religious faith in Americaâs heritage and future; in this way we shall constantly strengthen those spiritual weapons which forever will be our countryâs most powerful resource in peace and war.â
The phraseâs use and adoption hasnât been without controversy. President Theodore Roosevelt objected to its use on coins as he considered it sacrilege. Many others believe it symbolizes government support of religion, though several court cases have ruled against that suggestion.
Our nationâs motto first appears on postage
A little over two years before this, America issued the first definitive stamp bearing this motto in April 1954. The stamp, pictured below, was the first definitive with religious significance.Â Â The stamp was issued at the request of thousands of Americans calling for such a stamp with religious ties.
According to Arthur E. Summerfield, Postmaster General at the time, âThe inscription âIn God We Trustâ sums up the religious faith that has always been and is today the bulwark of this Nation â and its greatest source of strength. This stamp rededicates our faith in the spiritual foundations upon which our government and our nation rests and without which no government or nation could endure. Since this new stamp will be used primarily for the first ounce of regular international mail, it is âa postal ambassadorâ which will be abroad at the rate of about 200 million or more stamps a year.â
The stamp was unveiled in a nationwide television event attended by President Eisenhower, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, and leaders of religious groups.
Liberty Enlightening the World
The Statue of Liberty is a magnificent copper sculpture given to the United States by France in 1884.Â On October 28, 1886, the statue was dedicated.Â Its complete name is Liberty Enlightening the World.Â This majestic symbol of the United States, representing freedom for immigrants coming to America as well as the bond of freedom shared between the United States and France, stands above Liberty Island at the entrance to New York Harbor in Upper New York Bay.
The people of France donated the money to build the statue, and the people of America raised the funds to build its base.Â The French sculptor FrÃ©dÃ©ric Auguste Bartholdi designed the statue and chose its location.Â Alexandre Gustave Eiffel, the French engineer who later built the Eiffel Tower in Paris, designed the statueâs framework.Â The statue stands 301 feet and 1 inch high from foundation to torch.
In the early 1980s, a program was started to make major repairs and improvements to the statue.Â This effort concluded in 1986 â the 100th anniversary of the Statue of Libertyâs dedication in the U.S.Â A popular tourist attraction, the statue attracts about 2 million visitors each year.
The Liberty Series
Issued to replace the 1938 Presidential series, this patriotic set of stamps honors guardians of freedom throughout U.S. history.Â Eighteenth century America is represented by Revolutionary War heroes and statesmen such as Washington, Jefferson, Franklin, Hamilton, Henry, Jay, and Revere.
Leaders of the 19th century including Monroe, Lincoln, Lee, Harrison, and Susan B. Anthony make an appearance.Â The 20th century is represented by Teddy Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and General Pershing.
The Liberty Series also features famous locations important to Americaâs democratic history, such as Bunker Hill, Independence Hall, and the Alamo.
âWetâ versus âDryâ Printing
The Bureau of Engraving and Printing began an experiment in 1954.Â In previous âwetâ printings, the paper had a moisture content of 15 to 35 percent.Â In the experimental âdryâ printings, the paper had a moisture content of 5 to 10 percent.Â This process required stiffer, thicker paper, special inks, and greater pressure to force the paper through the plates.
Stamps produced by dry printing can be distinguished by whiter paper and higher surface sheen.Â The stamps feel thicker and the designs are more pronounced than on wet printings.Â So the dry printing experiment was a success, and all U.S. postage stamps have been printed by this method since the late 1950s.